Church History

 "Romans 5:12-14 teaches that we are guilty of the sin of Adam because "we were there" in Adam.  This may seem like a minor point of theology, but it is very important.  A case can be made from church history showing that in the late 18th century denial of this truth led directly to the liberalism of the early 19th century which in turn ended up denying both Christ and the Bible.  This happened because people of that time reasoned that if we are not really guilty of the sin of Adam then we are not really born sinners, which means we don't really need a savior, which means we don't need Jesus, which means we don't need the Bible, etc.  Entire denominations fell over this seemingly "minor" point."

   Words spoken by Rev. Rick Mathews , who gave the message in the morning service at Temple Baptist Church on August 18, 2002.

                                                                                                  For an exclusive chronological history that records events that happened from the year Temple Baptist Church was organized to present date, Click Here 


We start our history page in one of these dark times in this world where we live.

            Religious persecution and economic hardships came about in the early days in Europe and America that led to the influx of Swedish immigrants, the formation of the churches and things that make up the Baptist General Conference as we know it today and a final result of this History Page being written.  Click Here to read a brief introduction.

Creation of the Earth - (Undated)  In the beginning God created the Heaven's and the Earth.  Genesis 1:1  According to the first verses of Genesis God created the Heavens and the Earth in 6 - 24 hour days.  God rested on the seventh day.
    Day One: Then God said, "Let there be light," and there was light.  God saw that the light was good and he separated the light from the darkness.  God called the light "day," and the darkness he called "night."  And there was evening, and there was morning---the first day.
            Day Two: Then God said,
"Let there be a space between the waters to separate water of the heavens from waters of the earth."   And that is what happened.  God made this space to separate the waters of the earth from the waters of the heavens.  "God called the space "sky."  And evening passed and morning came marking the second day.
            Day Three: Then God said,
"Let the waters beneath the sky flow together into one place, so dry ground may appear."  And that is what happened.  God called the dry ground "land" and the waters "seas."  And God saw that it was good.  Then God said, "Let the land sprout with vegetation -- ever sort of seed-bearing plant, and trees that grow seed bearing fruit.  These seeds will then produce the kinds of plants and trees from which they came."  And that is what happened.  The land produced vegetation -- all sorts of seed-bearing plants, and trees with seed-bearing fruit.  Their seeds produced plants and trees of the same kind.  And God saw that it was good.  And the evening passed and morning came, marking the third day.
            Day Four: Then God said,
"Let lights appear in the sky to separate the day from the night.  Let them be signs to mark the season, days, and years.  Let these lights in the sky shine down on the earth."  And that is what happened.  God made two great lights. -- the larger one to govern the day, and the smaller one to govern the night.  He also made the stars.  God set these lights in the sky to light the earth, to govern the day and night, and to separate the light from the darkness.  And God saw that it was good.  And evening passed and morning came, marking the fourth day.
            Day Five: Then God said,
"Let the waters swarm with fish and other life.  Let the skies be filled with birds of every kind."  So God created great sea creatures and every living thing that scurries and swarms in the water, and every sort of bird -- each producing offspring of the same kind.  And God saw that it was good.  Then God blessed them, saying, "Be fruitful and multiply, let the fish fill the seas, and let the birds multiply on the earth."  And evening passed and morning came, marking the fifth day.
            Day Six: Then God said,
"Let the earth produce every sort of animal, each producing off spring of the same kind -- Livestock, small animals that scurry along the ground, and wild animals."  And that is what happened.  God made all sort of wild animals, livestock, and small animals, each able to produce offspring of the same kind.  And God saw that it was good.  Then God said, "Let us make human beings in our image, to be like us.  They will reign over the fish in the seas, the birds in the sky, the livestock, all the wild animals on the earth, and the small animals that scurry along the ground."  So God created human beings in His own image.  In the image of God He created them, male and female He created them.  Then God said, "Look! I have given you every seed-bearing plant through out the earth and all the fruit trees for your food.  And I have given every green plant as food for all the wild animals and the birds in the sky, and the small animals that scurry along the ground -- everything that has life."  Then God looked over all He had made, and He saw that it was very good!  And evening passed and morning came, marking the sixth day.
            Day Seven:
So the creation of the heavens and the earth and every thing in them was completed.  On the seventh day God had finished His work of creation, so He rested from all His work.  And God blessed the seventh day and declared it Holy because it was the day when He rested from all the work of creation.

Noah Builds the Ark - (Undated)  
The ark was 450 feet long, 75 feet wide, and 45 feet high.  It was made primarily of Cyprus wood.  There was no sea trial and this type of water craft had never been built before.  It held 45,000 animals comprised of seven each of clean and two each of unclean animals.  Noah built the ark on faith and with God's instruction.  Noah and his son's left the details up to God, such as the collection of the animals and spent their  time with the construction of the ark. The rain fell on the earth for forty days and forty nights.   The waters flooded the earth for one hundred and fifty days.  In the tenth month the tops of the mountains became visible. The ark landed in the mountains of Ararat in Turkey near the USSR border.  It rested there almost 8 months before Noah, his family and the animals stepped onto dry land,  They spent an entire year in the ark.  We, like Noah must trust God to give us patience during those difficult time when we must wait.
            Many of us have trouble sticking to any project, whether or not it is directed by God.  It is interesting that the length of Noah's obedience was greater than the life span of people today.  The only comprehensible long-term project is our very lives.  But perhaps this is one great challenge Noah's life gives us - to live, in accordance with God's grace, an entire lifetime of obedience and gratitude.
         Noah lived a total of 900 years.
10000 BC (circa)
The first permanent settlement on the site of Jericho developed near the Ein as-Sultan spring between 10,000 and 9,000 BC.  Jericho may be the oldest continuously occupied city in the world.

3200 BC (circa)
            The Egyptian City of Thebes was inhabited.  The city was sacked by the Assyrians in 681 BC. (Nahum 3:8-10) and the Romans again in 29 BC.  It said that a Greek visitor in 20 BC came to the site reported only a few scattered villages.  The city is now known as Luxor.  The temples of Luxor, Karnack and the area of Valley of Queens & the Valley of the Kings, which includes the tombs of Tutankhamen and the sons of Ramses II, are among the most splendid in the world. These and other sites in the area has been the scene of much important archaeological work.

3138 BC (circa) 
            Enoch was born, according to the Timeline of Jewish History.   He was born in the seventh generation from Adam. His son, Methuselah, lived longer than anyone else.  He was a prophet of God; he warned the wicked of coming judgment, lived at the time when following the Lord was utterly unpopular, went to heaven with out experiencing physical death.  His temporal journey ended one day while he was walking with God.  Enoch, without dying, was suddenly snatched away to heaven.  The biblical account regarding Enoch consists of just a handful of verses found in Genesis, Hebrews, and Jude (along with mentions of his name in I Chronicles 1:3 and Luke 3:37.
            Taken in part from a book by John MacArthur, "Twelve Unlikely Heroes."  

2560 BC (circa)
            The Great Pyramids of Giza was built this year (circa).  It is also called the Pyramid of Khufu, and sometimes referred to as the Pyramid of Cheops.  It is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis border what is now El Giza, Egypt.  It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one to remain largely intact.  It is believed the pyramid was built as a tomb for fourth dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu.  Khufu founder of the 4th Dynasty around 2680 BC and ruled Egypt for 23 years.

2500 BC (circa)
            The Great Sphinx outside of Cairo was built around this year.  It is one of the world's largest and oldest statues, but basic facts about it, such as who was the model for the face, when it was built, and by whom are still debated.
            Egyptians discover papyrus and ink for writing and build the first libraries; iron objects manufactured in the ancient Near East.

2500 BC
The Egyptians discover papyrus and ink for writing and build the first libraries, iron objects were manufactured in the ancient Near East. 

2400 BC (circa)
             Egyptians import gold from other parts of Africa.  Egyptian domestic trade was done by barter, gold had no economic importance.  Egyptians believed that gold was a divine and indestructible metal associated with the sun.

2331 BC
          Semitic chieftain, Sargon, conquers Sumer to become first "World Conqueror." 

2300 BC (circa)
            Horses domesticated in Egypt; chickens domesticated in Babylon; bows and arrows used in wars.

2166 BC (circa)
Abram was born.

2100 BC
Glass was made by the Mesopotamians Ziggurats  The tower of Babel built in Mesopotamia; earliest discovered drug ethyl alcohol, used to alleviate pain.

2091 BC (circa)
Abram Entered Canaan.

2066 BC (circa)
Isaac was born.

2006 BC (circa)
Jacob and Esau were born.

2000 BC
         Native Americans immigrated to North America from northern Asia stock-breeding and irrigation used in China.  Stonehenge, England, a center for religious Worship is erected.  Bellows were used in India allowing for higher furnace temperatures.

2000 to 1800 BC (circa)
            The book of Job
was written about this time.  Job is the first book of the bible to be written.  This book gives insight to the work of Satan. Addresses the question, Why do the righteous suffer?  Possibly written by Job and addresses the people of that time as well as today.  
            Prologue In the land of Uz there lived a man whose name was Job. This man was blameless and upright; he feared God and shunned evil. He had seven sons and three daughters,  and he owned seven thousand sheep, three thousand camels, five hundred yoke of oxen and five hundred donkeys, and had a large number of servants. He was the greatest man among all the people of the East.   Setting:  The land of Uz, probably located northeast of Palestine, near desert land between Damascus and the Euphrates River. 
            In Summary: Satan noticed the man named Job who's was most favored by God.  Satan wanted to test Job and tried to convince God that Job didn't really want to follow Him.  Satan asked God for permission to test Job, and God told Satan that was OK but just don't take his life.  Job became really sick and had boils all over his body.  He had to lay in bed the whole time.  In the mean time he lost his wife, children, home, and all worldly possessions.  Job had three friends tried to convince him that he had sinned, and that his sin had resulted in his suffering.  They contended that God would never let a righteous man suffer.  Elihu comes on the scene and doesn't agree with Job's three friends, stating that Job's failure came when he attributed righteousness to himself, rather than to God, his Creator.  It is then that God speaks and challenges Job, who had dared to question God.  Job responds to the Lord in repentance.  God responds by acknowledging Job's repentance, and by stating His anger against Job's three friend,  "My wrath is against (Eliphaz) and against your two friends, for you have not spoken of me what is right, as my servant Job has." Job 42;7b  It is interesting of mention again that God does Not address Elihu in any manner, or consider him in the same company as Job's three friends.  For God says, "you and your two friends."  God tells Job's three friends to gather animals for a burnt offering, and to go to Job for intercessory Prayer.   God goes further to state He will accept the prayers of Job and not deal harshly with his friends.  Because God told Job's friends that they must go to Job in prayer for mercy, it is clear that God and Job's relationship has been restored.  Next in the timeline is the response of Job's acquaintances. His brothers and sisters, and all those who knew him came to his house for a feast, consoled him, and showed him compassion for all that he had endured.  In the end, God restored all that Job had lost, and gave Job twice as much as he had before.  The Lord blessed him with a long life, and with seven more sons, and three more daughters who were the most beautiful women in all the land.  Satan was proved wrong, and God's righteousness had prevailed!

        Job 19:25-27:
           25 I know that my redeemer lives, and that in the end he will stand on the earth. 26 And after my skin has been destroyed, yet in my flesh I will see God;  27 I myself will see him with my own eyes—I, and not another.  How my heart yearns within me!

        Job 42:16-17
            'And after Job lived 140 years, and saw his sons, and his son' sons, four generations.  And Job died, and old man and full of days."

1929 BC
            Jacob flees to Haran.

1915 BC circa
            Joseph was born.

1900 BC
The Egyptians use irrigation systems to control Nile River floods.
The spoked wheel was invented in the ancient Near East.  
           Horses were used to pull vehicles.

1898 BC
         Joseph was sold into slavery.

1885 BC
Joseph rules Egypt.

1805 BC
Joseph dies.  

1750 BC
Babylonian mathematicians already understand cube and square root.  Hammurapi of Babylon provides first of all legal codes.

1700 BC
Egyptian papyrus document describes medical and surgical procedures.

1526 BC (circa)  
Moses was born.

1500 BC (circa)
Sundials were used in Egypt.  A Mexican Sun-Pyramid was built.

1446 BC (circa)
The Exodus from Egypt.

1445 BC (circa)
The Ten Commandants were given to Moses on Mt. SinaiYom Kippur was first observed following the second time God gave Moses the tablets.

1445-1405 BC
The book of
Genesis was written to record God's creation of the world and His desire to have a people set apart to worship Him.  It was written by Moses to the People of Israel.  God created the sky, seas and land.  He created the plants, animals, fish, and birds.  But He created human beings in His own image.  At times, others may treat us disrespectfully.  But we can be certain of out dignity and worth because we have been created in the image of God.
            The book of
Exodus was written to record the events of Israel's deliverance from Egypt and development as a nation.  It was written by Moses to the People of Israel.  When the Israelites were enslaved in Egypt, God heard their cries and rescued them.  We can be confident that God still hears the cries of his people.  Just as He delivered the Israelites from their captors, He delivers us from sin, death and evil.  After crossing the Red Sea, the Israelites became quarrelsome and discontent.  Like the Israelites, we find it easy to complain and be dissatisfied.  Christians still have struggles, but we should never allow difficulties and unpleasant circumstances to turn us away from trusting God.  God revealed His law to the Israelites at Sinai.  Through the law, they learned more about what God is like and how he expected His people to live.  The law is still instructional for us, for it exposes our sin and shows us God's standard for living.

            The book of
Leviticus was written as a handbook for the priests and Levites outlining their duties of worship and a guidebook of holy living for the Hebrews.  It was written by Moses to the People of Israel.  The book of Leviticus begins where the book of Exodus ends -- at the foot of Mount Sinai, and the tabernacle has been completed and God ws ready to teach the people how to worship there.  The Tent of Meeting was smaller structure inside the larger tabernacle.  The Tent of Meeting contained the sanctuary in one part and the Most Holy Place with the ark in another part.  These two sections were separated by a curtain.  God revealed Himself to Moses in the Most Holy Place.  In Exodus 33:7 mentions a "tent of meeting" where Moses met God before the tabernacle was constructed.    

            The book of
Numbers was written to tell the story of how Israel prepared to enter the promise land, how they sinned and were punished.  It was written by Moses to the People of Israel.  
Because the Israelites are unwilling to enter the land of Canaan, their entire generation is forced to wander in the Desert of Sinai for 38 years.  Summary:  Reading a book titled "Numbers" may sound about as exciting as reading a dictionary or paging through a phone book, but get ready for a surprise: this book is loaded with powerful stories.  The Bible says it graphically illustrates what happens when people sin, but it also exemplifies hope for those who desire God's mercy and want to experience His faithfulness.  The book of Numbers reveals a God of devastating wrath who also hold his arms wide open for those who repent of their sin and turn to Him. Within this book you'll find the Israelites' repeated cycles of sin, judgment, and repentance.  You'll see not only human failure but also God's patient and merciful response.  This book show the lengths to which God goes to love and rescue His people.  

            The book of
Deuteronomy was written to tell the story of how Israel prepared to enter the promise land, how they sinned and were punished.  It was written by Moses and Joshua to Israel specifically to the generation entering the Promise Land.  
In a series of farewell messages, Moses exhorts the new generation of Israelites to live as his obedient people in the promised land.  Summary:  As you read the 34 chapters in the book of Deuteronomy, you'll see how God's people dealt not only with hardship, testing, and doubt but also with promise, hope, and trust.  It tells us that faith is not automatic or mechanical.  Faith becomes personal and active when it springs from a living relationship with a loving God.  The Bible says the message of Deuteronomy can be summed up this way: devote yourself whole heartedly to God.  In the book, Moses commands his readers to "love the Lord you God with all you heart and with all your soul and with all your strength."  He challenged the people to faithfully obey the Lord and reject all forms of idolatry.  He called on the new generation to formally renew the earlier covenant with God that their parents had broken. 

Note:  The first five books of the Bible excluding the book of Job (Genesis through Deuteronomy) are called the Torah and the Pentateuch.
1410-450 BC
The book of Psalms was written to provide poetry for the expression of praise, worship, and confession to God.  The book was written to the people of Israel by David who wrote 73 Psalms, Asaph, David's worship leader wrote 12 Psalms, sons of Korah a major Levite family wrote 11 Psalms, Unknowns wrote 50 Psalms, Solomon wrote 2 Psalms, Moses wrote 1 Psalm, Ethan the Ezrahite wrote 1 Psalm (Psalm 89), and Heman the Ezrahite wrote 1 Psalm (Psalm 88).  
As stated previously the book of Psalms contains ancient Israel's favorite hymns and prayers, which were used in their worship of God, the Great King.  Summary:  The book of Psalms is a collection of 150 ancient Hebrew songs and Prayers.  As the Bible says, Psalms give voice to personal feelings, they are poetry, not doctrinal essays.  The psalmists frequently were interested in how something felt more than what it meant.  Think of the psalms as entries in a diary: they reflect people's most intimate encounters with God.  Watch for figures of speech, exaggerations, and repetitions.  Poetic language requires that you read with your heart as well as you mind.  The Bible says the various psalms help us see that God responds to us in our emotional highs and lows.  

1406 BC (circa)
         Hebrews enter Canaan.

1405-1385 BC
The Book of Joshuawas written during this time frame.  The main goal of the book was to give the history of Israel's conquest of the Promised land.  It was written to the people of Israel by Joshua.  
    Setting:  God enables Joshua to lead the armies of Israel to victory over the Canaanites in the promised land.  Summary: Have you ever wished for a second chance?  Maybe you squandered a rare opportunity.  Maybe you tried something, but your attempt failed.  Or maybe you wasted a precious gift or a valued friendship.  The Bible says the book of Joshua reminds us that God often offers us a second chance.  Though the Israelites failed to enter the promised land the first time because of their lack of faith, and though they wasted 40 years because of their failure, God gave the next generation another opportunity.  The Israelites had learned their lesson, and the results were different the second time around.  In the book we also learn more about God, including His purposes and how He works in human lives.  The book of Joshua is where we're told to "Be strong and courageous.  Do not be afraid: do not be discouraged, for the Lord your God will be with you wherever you go."   

1400 BC
First Period of Chinese LiteratureIntricate clock used in Egypt.

1380 BC
            The Palace of Knossos on the island of Crete was partially destroyed by and earthquake.

1375 BC
         Judges begin to rule in Israel

            King Tutankhamen was Amarna, Egypt.  He was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh who was the last of his royal family to rule during the end of the 18th Dynasty during the New Kingdom of Egyptian history.

1325 BC (circa)
Egyptian King Tutankhamen dies and is buried an immense treasure laden tomb in the Valley of the Kings.

1250 BC
Silk fabrics are manufactured in China.

1209 BC                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
         Deborah becomes Israel's judge.

1200 BC
         Labor strike in Thebes (Now known as Luxor).  The first Chinese Dictionary.

1183 BC
         Destruction of Troy during the Trojan War.

1175 BC (circa)
The Philistines first appeared in the area known as Canaan.

1162 BC
            Gideon becomes Israel's judge.

1080 BC (circa)
Samuel was born to Hannah and his father Elkanah.  Hannah was with out child and she made a vow to the Lord that if He would give her a child she would bring him to the temple, when he was ready, and be an understudy under Eli the High Priest.  She did that and Samuel became the last Judge that Israel had.  Samuel appointed Saul to be Israel's first King, as the people wanted.  Before Saul died, Samuel anointed David as King as directed by God.

1079 BC (circa)
King Saul was born.  He was the first king of the United Kingdom of Israel.  He was anointed by the prophet Samuel and reigned from Gibeah.  King Saul reigned for 42 years. During a battle between Israel and the Philistines at Mont Gilboa, King Saul was critically wounded and his three sons were killed.  During this time he fell on his sword and died, to avoid capture in the battle.  Saul could be impulsive, acting unwisely.  His jealousy of David drove him to madness and a thirst for revenge.  More than once, King Saul disobeyed God's instructions, thinking he new better.  The succession to his throne was contested by Ish-bosheth, his only surviving son, and his son-in-law David, who eventually prevailed.  The main account of Saul's life and reign is found in the Books of 1st and 2nd Samuel.  He died in the year,1007 BC, at the age of 72.

1050 BC
Shiloh was where the tabernacle had been set up by the conquest of Canaan.  It was destroyed  by the Philistines.
Saul became Israel's first king.

1043 BC (circa)
The book of Judges was written during this time.  The purpose of the book was to show that God's judgment against sin is certain, and His forgiveness of sin are just as certain for those who repent.  It was written for the People of Israel by possibly Samuel.  
In danger of losing the promised land, the Israelites are delivered again and again by God through leaders known as "judges."  Summary:  Covering a period of about 350 years in the centuries before Christ, the book of Judges is filled with stories as sensational and dramatic as any of today's headlines.  The Bibles says that, in terms of sheer spectacle--gruesome murders, sexual exploits, superhuman feats of strength, bizarre mutilation--not tabloid of today could offer you more.  But no tabloid could offer the eternal truth you'll find within these stories.  The book of Judges says, "When they cried out to the Lord, he raised up for them a deliverer"(3:9).  It shows what happened when Israel repeatedly slid into moral anarchy, and it highlights God's merciful deliverance when His people cry out to Him in repentance.   

            David was born during this year.  He was the youngest son of Jesse.  God sent Samuel to the house of Jesse who had 7 sons and Samuel was sent to anoint one of his sons as King of Israel.  Samuel looked at all Jesse's 7 sons and God told Samuel not one of these so Samuel asked if he had any other sons and Jesse said the youngest son David who was out tending the sheep.  Samuel asked Jesse to go get David, which he did and when David showed up God said to Samuel that he was the one.  So Samuel anointed David as the new King of Israel after Saul was done with his office.  David died in the year 970 and is buried in Jerusalem near The Citadel and the Upper Room..


1030-1010 BC (circa)
The book of
Ruth was written during this time.  The book of Ruth was written to show how three people remained strong in character and true to God when the society around them was collapsing.  The author of the book remains unknown and was written to the people of Israel.
   Setting: Ruth, a Moabite woman, proves to be a model of faithfulness in Israel during the period of the judges.  Summary: The events in the book of Ruth probably took place during the period covered during in the book of Judges.  The Bible says that, though it recounts a ancient time, the book of Ruth raises questions that are surprisingly modern and seemingly ever-present.  Is God good?  Does He care about me?  It describes the wrenching story of a suffering woman.  Naomi, like Job, was a follower of God who endured a barrage of tragedies that left her looking at God from rock bottom.  God answered Naomi's despair through Ruth, Naomi's foreign-born daughter-in-law, who, along with the wealthy landowner Boaz, displayed God's sacrificial love that far exceeds the limits of ordinary human love.  Ruth reminds us that even during the darkest circumstances, when doubts about God overwhelm us, God's love for us is true.   

1010 BC
David becomes Israel's king.

1000 BC
At the direction of God, the Bible recounts, Israelite King David built an altar to the LORD on the threshing floor of Araunah the Jebusite.                                         II Samuel 24:18

1000 BC
City of Peking, China (now known as Beijing) was built.  Greek mythology fully developed.  California Indians build wood-reed houses.  Chinese mathematics utilizes root multiplication, geometry, proportions, and theory of motion,  Glazing of bricks and tiles begins in Near East.

971-965 BC
The book of Song of Solomon was written during this time.   To tell the love between a bridegroom (King Solomon) and his bride, to affirm the sanctity of marriage to picture God's love for us.  The book was written to all people in general by Solomon.  
This wisdom writer celebrates the sexual union between a man and a woman as a joyful part of marital life in God's good creation.  Summary:  People wonder why Song of Songs, also known as Song of Solomon, is included in the Bible.  Some suggest this poem about love and sexual intimacy should only be read symbolically, as an allegory of the love relationship between either God and Israel or Christ and the church.  Others take it at face value, seeing it as depicting love in all its spontaneity, beauty, power, and exclusiveness--and experienced in its moments of separation and intimacy, anguish and ecstasy, tension and contentment.  There's value in both approaches.  The Bible says Song of Songs is a beautiful picture of physical and relational love.  Its highly sensuous and suggestive imagery drawn from nature applauds sexuality as a normal part of marital life to be experienced as God intends it in His good creation.   

971-686 BC (circa)
The book of
Proverbs was written during this time to apply divine wisdom to daily life and to provide moral instruction..  It was addressed to the people of Israel and written by Solomon and others.  Setting:  Proverbs describes the importance of loving wisely and in the fear of the Lord as opposed to following the seductive path of folly.  Summary:  From daytime talk shows to advice columns and self-help books, our culture is glutted with information--but often starved for wisdom.  The complexity of life requires practical counsel that is also meaningfully spiritual.  Proverbs offers this spiritual depth to issues like managing money, the dangers of adultery, learning how to identify true friends, and so much more.  Here you'll find wisdom that works and insights that won't wear out.  The Bible says pay close attention to differing outcomes of those who follow God's wisdom and those who don't.  And as you read Proverbs, watch for contrasting issues such as foolishness and wisdom, laziness and diligence, adultery and faithfulness, and true and false friendships.  Look for principles that build strong marriages, under gird faithful parenting, and establish good relationships on the job.  

970 BC
Solomon becomes Israel's king.  The Kingdom of Israel divides.     

960 BC (circa)
King Solomon, David's son, built the first temple on Mount Moriah.   Solomon's Temple, also known as the First Temple, was the temple in Jerusalem, on the Temple Mount also known as Mount Zion, before its destruction by Nebuchadnezzar II after the Siege of Jerusalem of 587 BC.  During the kingdom of Judah, the temple was dedicated to Yahweh, and housed the Ark of the Covenant.

959 BC
First Temple in Jerusalem was completed.

950 BC
         Gold vessels and jewelry popular in northern Europe.

940-931 BC
            The book of
Ecclesiastes was written during this time to spare future generations the bitterness of learning through their own experiences that life without God is meaningless.   It was written to all people in general by Solomon.  Ecclesiastes presents us a naturalistic vision of life--one that sees life through distinctively human eyes--but ultimately recognizes the rule and reign of God in the world.  This more humanistic quality has made the book especially popular among younger audiences today, men and women who have seen more than their fair share of pain and instability in life but who still cling to their hope in God.  The book like much of life, presents a journey from one point to another.  Solomon articulated his starting point early in the book: "Vanity of vanities! chapter 1 verse 2 indicating the utter futility and meaninglessness of life as he saw it.  Nothing made sense to him because he had already tried any number of remedies; pleasure, work, and intellect to alleviate his sense of feeling lost in the world.     Borrowed from Chuck Swindol.

931-722 BC
The book of
1 Samuelwas written during this time to record the life of Samuel, Israel's last judge, the decline of Saul, Israel's first king and the prep for David Israel's greatest king.   Overview: Israel has not heard from God in decades.  The priests are corrupt.  The nearby nations threaten the land's safety.  Even Eli, the high priest and judge of Israel, is not faithfully serving God and the people.  Israel needs more than a judge.  Israel needs to hear from God again, Israel needs a prophet. So God gives them Samuel.  Samuel serves the people as a prophet and judge.  He speaks the word of the Lord to the people, and teaches them how to live as the people of God.  But when Samuel grows old and Israel's enemies attack, the people demand that Samuel appoint a king.  Samuel advises the people to trust in God and not in human leadership, but the people do not listen; they are determined to have a king rule over them and deliver them from the enemy.  So God gives them Saul.  Saul is a foolish, selfish, cowardly king.  He ignores the word of the Lord and craves the approval of men.  He disobeys God several times, oversteps his duties, and puts the people at odds with god and each other.  King Saul does not keep the Law of Moses, and does not direct the Israelites to live as god's holy people.  So God gives them David.  David is a "man after (God's) own heart."  He is a skilled warrior, musician, and leader of men; a man who trusts in God and encourages his countrymen to act like God' people.  David's famous defeat of Goliath makes him a popular, famous figure in Israel.  Saul fears that David will seize his kingdom eventually, and spends the rest of his life hunting David down.          Copied from a article by Jeffery Kranz.
            The book of
2 Samuel to record the history of David's reign. The book was written to the people of Israel by an unknown author. The Book of 2 Samuel continues the message of 1 Samuel.  It is given over entirely to the reign of David.  The life and times of David are important because he is the ancestor of Jesus.  It shows that government of this world in the hands of man is a failure.  

930 BC
         Kingdom of Israel divides.   Judah consisted of 2 tribes in the south, with their capital, Jerusalem and Israel consisted of the other 10 tribes with Samaria as their capitol.

900 BC
Celts invade BritainAssyrians invent inflatable skins for soldiers to cross rivers.

The prophet Elijah was born

875 BC
Elijah prophesies in Israel.

874 BC
Ahab becomes Israel's king.

853 BC 
King Ahab dies in battle.

850 BC
Evidence found of highly developed metal and stone sculptures in Africa.

850-840 BC
The book of
Obadiah was written during this time to show that God judges those who have harmed His people.  The book was written to those in the Southern Kingdom by the prophet Obadiah...

848 BC
         Elisha prophesies in Israel. Elijah's ministry transfers to Elisha.

841 BC  
             Jehu becomes King of Israel.

835 BC
Joash becomes Judah's king.

835-796 BC
The book of
Joel was written during this time to warn Judah of God's impending judgment because of its sins and to urge the people to turn back to God.  The book was written to the people of Judah by Joel, son of Pethuel.

814 BC
Founding of Carthage, a Phoenician trading post.  

800 BC
Development of Caste system in India.  Babylonian and Chinese astronomers understand planetary movements.  Spoked wheels used in Europe.  Homer writes Iliad and Odyssey.  Ice skating a popular sport in northern Europe.

797 BC
Elisha's ministry ends.

793 BC
Jeroboam II becomes King of Israel. (Northern Kingdom)

793 BC
Jonah becomes a prophet.

776 BC
First known date of the Olympic games that was held in Olympia, Greece..  Back to 438 BC

775 BC (circa)
The book of
Jonah was written during this time to show the extent of God's grace - the message of salvation is for all people.  The book was written The People of Israel by Jonah, son of Amittal.

760 BC
         Amos became a prophet.

753 BC
Hosea became a prophet.
            Traditional date for founding of city of Rome

750 BC (circa)
The book of
Amos was written during this time to pronounce God's judgment upon Israel, the northern kingdom, for its complacency, idolatry and oppression ot the poor.  The book was written to The Northern Kingdom of Israel by the prophet Amos.

750-710 BC
The book of
Hosea was written during this time to illustrate God's love for His sinful people. (Hosea means salvation.)  The book was written to The Northern Kingdom of Israel by the prophet Hosea, son of Beeri.

742 BC
Micah became a prophet.

741 BC (circa)
         The prophet Isaiah was born.  He died in the year 681 BC (according to the footnotes in the NIV study Bible.)

The year that King Uzziah Died.  Isaiah's ministry begins.

735-710 BC
The book of Micah was written to warn God's people that judgment is coming and to offer pardon to all who repent.  The book was written to The Northern Kingdom of Israel by the prophet Micah.

732 BC
         Tiglath - Pileser³, king of Assyria and his army invaded Moab.  The same year they captured Damascus capital of Aram and annexed the Northern Kingdom to Assyria.  

722 BC - Israel was defeated and carried away into Assyria.  The Northern Kingdom of Israel was conquered by the Neo-Assyrian monarchs, Tiglath-Pileser III and Shalmaneser V.  The later Assyrian rulers Sargon II and his son and successor, Sennacherib, were responsible for finishing the twenty-year demise of Israel's northern ten-tribe kingdom, although they did not overtake the Southern Kingdom, Jerusalem was besieged, but not taken.  The tribes exiled by Assyria later became known as the Ten Lost Tribes.

715 BC
Hezekiah became king of Judah.

701 BC
         Invasion of Judah by Sennacherib of Assyria.  185,000 Assyrian soldiers were slain by the angel of the Lord while camped outside of Jerusalem laying siege to the city.

700 BC
False teeth invented in Italy.

700-681 BC
The book of Isaiah was written to call the nation of Judah back to God and to tell of God's salvation through the Messiah.  It was written to the country of Israel and surrounding pagan nations by Isaiah, son of Amoz.

697 BC
Manassah became king of Judah.

689 BC (circa)
Babylon was destroyed by Sennacherib of Assyria.   

663 BC (circa)
Nahum became a prophet of God in the Southern Kingdom (Judah).  Nineveh, the capital of the Assyrian empire, is the subject of Naham's prophecy.  The news of its coming destruction was a relief for Judah, who was subject to Assyrian domination.  No longer would Judah be forced to pay tribute as insurance against invasions.  Judah was comforted to know that God was still in control.  Nineveh is an example to all rulers and nations of the world today.  God is sovereign over even those who are seemingly invincible.  We can be confident that God's power and justice will one day conquer all evil.  Read all three chapters in the book of Nahum in the Old Testament.

660 BC
Japan established as a nation.  National Foundation day;11, February.

655 BC (circa) 
The Prophet Jeremiah was born.  In the world's eyes, Jeremiah looked totally unsuccessful.  He had no money, family, or friends.  He prophesied the destruction of the nation, the capital city, and the temple, but the political and religious leaders would not accept or follow his advice.  No group of people liked him or listened to him.  Yet as we look back, we see that he successfully completed the work God gave him to do.  Success must never be measured by popularity, fame, or fortune, for these are temporal measures.  King Zedekiah, for example, lost everything by pursuing selfish goals.  God measures our success with the yardsticks of obedience, faithfulness, and righteousness.  If you are faithfully doing the work God gives you, you are successful in His eyes.  From the foot notes of the Application Life Study Bible in the Book of Jeremiah. NIV

650 BC (circa)
The book of Nahum was written during this time to pronounce God's judgment on Assyria and to comfort Judah with this truth.  The book of Nahum was written to the people of Nineveh and Judah by the Prophet Nahum.  His name means "comforter."

640 BC
Zephaniah becomes a prophet.  Josiah became king of Judah.

635-625 BC
The book of Zephaniah was written during this time to shake the people of Judah out of their complacency and urge them to return to God.   The book of Zephaniah was written to The people of Judah - Southern Kingdom by the Prophet Zephaniah.

627 BC
Jeremiah becomes a prophet.  He predicted the 70 years of captivity 20 years before it began.  He preached the same message for 23 years and was continually rejected.

622 BC
         Book of the Law was found in the Temple.

621 BC (circa)
After Babylon became strong again, the Babylonians conquered Assyria.

615-605 BC
The book of Habakkuk was written during this time to show that God is still in control of the world despite the apparent triumph of evil.  The book was written to The people of Judah - Southern Kingdom by the Prophet Habakkuk.

612 BC
Downfall of Assyria.- Babylon overt roughs Assyria

609 BC
         Good king Josiah reigned only 3-months before taken away to Egypt.  He world be the first ruler to die in exile.

605 BC
         Nebuchadnezzar came to power in Babylon.  He reigned until 562 BC, the longest reign of any king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire.

605 BC
The first wave of destruction of Jerusalem.  Daniel taken captive. From the foot notes of the Application Life Study Bible in the Book of Jeremiah. NIV  Babylon defeats Egypt.

600 BC
Temple of Artemis was built in Ephesus, Turkey.  It was one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.

597 BC
The second wave of destruction of Jerusalem.  From the foot notes of the Application Life Study Bible in the Book of Jeremiah. NIV

593 BC 
            Ezekiel became a prophet.  He was born in 622 BC.  He was born into a priesthood lineage from the Kingdom of Judah.  At the age of 25, he was exiled into Babylon. He was among the thousands of young men deported from Judah to Babylon.  He was married and his wife died 9 years after the exile.  Ezekiel prophesied to those already exiled in Babylon.  Ezekiel's story is told in the book of Ezekiel and II Kings 24:10-17.

590-570 BC
The book of Ezekiel was written during this time.  The book was written to announce God's judgment on Israel and other nations and to foretell the eventual salvation of God's people.  It was written to the Jews in captivity in Babylonia by Ezekiel, son of Buzi.
            Inaugural Vision: In my thirtieth year, in the fourth month on the fifth day, while I was among the exiles by the Kebar River, the heavens were opened and I saw visions of God. On the fifth of the month—it was the fifth year of the exile of King Jehoiachin— the word of the Lord came to Ezekiel the priest, the son of Buzi, by the Kebar River in the land of the Babylonians.  There the hand of the Lord was on him.

587 BC
The Siege of Jerusalem.  
            The third wave of destruction of Jerusalem.  From the foot notes of the Application Life Study Bible in the Book of Jeremiah. NIV                           Back to 960BC

586 BC
The book of Lamentations was written to teach people that to disobey God is to invite disaster, and to show that God suffers when His people suffer.  The book was written to The exiled people of Judah in five brief chapters by the Prophet Jeremiah.  Lamentations gives us a portrait of the bitter suffering the people of Jerusalem experienced when sin caught up with them and God turned His back on them.  Every material goal they had lived for collapsed.  But although God turned away from them because of their sin, He did not abandon them - that was their great hope.  Despite of their sinful past, God would restore them if they returned to Him.  Hope is found only in the Lord.  Thus our grief should turn us toward Him, not away from Him.  
            Judah (southern kingdom) falls of Babylon. 

586-579 BC
The book of Jeremiah was written during this time period to urge God's people to turn from their sins and back to God.  It was written to Judah and its capital city Jerusalem by The Prophet JeremiahFrom Chapter 1:1-3 The words of Jeremiah son of Hilkiah, one of the priests at Anathoth in the territory of Benjamin.  The word of the Lord came to him in the thirteenth year of the reign of Josiah son of Amon king of Judah,  and through the reign of Jehoiakim son of Josiah king of Judah, down to the fifth month of the eleventh year of Zedekiah son of Josiah king of Judah, when the people of Jerusalem went into exile.

563 BC
Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism was born in India.  He died sometime between 563 and 480 BC in Nepal.

562 BC
         King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon dies.

561-538 BC
The book of 1 Kings was written during this time period to contrast the lives of those who live for God and those who refuse to do so through the history of the kings of Israel and Judah.  The book was written to the people of Israel by unknown authors.
        In his old age, Solomon forsakes God, worships his wife's gods, and angers the Lord.  Almost as soon as Solomon dies, the kingdom erupts in civil war.  Years pass, foreigners chip away at the kingdom's affluence, and each successive king is worse than the last until Ahab inherits the throne of Israel.
            The book of 2 Kings was written during this time period to demonstrate the fate that awaits all who refuse to make God their true leader.  The book was written to the people of Israel by unknown authors.            Second Kings continues the history of the divided kingdom, picking up the story around 853 BC. In 722 BC, the powerful nation of Assyria invaded the northern kingdom, scattering and taking captive the people of Israel. Only Judah remained intact. But then Assyria suffered a stunning fall to the Babylonians, who took the Assyrian capital of Nineveh in 612 BC.

559-530 BC 
King Cyrus ruled.  He was born in 600 or 576 BC in Anshan, Persia.  He died in a battle in 530 BC.


551 BC
Confucius, famous Chinese scholar was born on September 28, of this year..

542 BC
         November 20, The Madaba Map was dedicated on this date in the church of St. George in Madaba, Jordan.  

539 BC
Cyrus, King of Persia, took the city of Babylon by surprise and brought the nation to it's knees.  The complete destruction of the city was accomplished later by other Persian kings.  They killed Belshazzer, the last ruler of Babylon.

538 BC
The first group of Jewish exiles return to Jerusalem.

536-530 BC
The book of Daniel was written during this time in history to give a historical account of the faithful Jews who lived in captivity and to show how God is in control of heaven and earth.  It was written to the other captives in Babylon by Daniel.  The overall theme of the book of Daniel is God's sovereignty over history, and the theme of the tales in chapters 1–6 is that God is sovereign over all earthly kings.  Daniel 1 introduces the fundamental question that runs through the entire book, how God may continue to work his plans when all seems lost.
532 BC
Construction started on the Hagia Sophia in what is now known as Istanbul, Turkey.  From the date of its dedication in 360 until 1453, it served as a cathedral of Constantinople, except between 1204 and 1261, when it was the cathedral of the Latin Empire.  The building was converted to a mosque from May 29, 1453 until 1934, when it was secularized.  It was opened as a museum on February 1, 1935.

520 BC
August 29,  Haggai 1:13-15 NIV~ Then Haggai, the Lord's messenger, gave this message of the Lord to the people, "I am with you," declares the Lord.  So the Lord stirred up the spirit of Zerubbabel son of Shealtiel, governor of Judah, and the spirit of Joshua son of Jehozadak, the high priest, and the spirit of the whole remnant of the people.  The came and began to work on the house of the Lord Almighty, their God, on the twenty-fourth day of the sixth month in the second year of King Darius.

520 BC 
The Bible book of Haggai was written during this time.  The book was written to call the people to complete the rebuilding of the temple.  The book was addressed to the people living in Jerusalem and those from exile and written by The Prophet Haggai.                                                   The prophet Haggai recorded his four messages to the Jewish people of Jerusalem in 520 BC, eighteen years after their return from exile in Babylon (538 BC). Haggai 2:3 seems to indicate that the prophet had seen Jerusalem before the destruction of the temple and the exile in 586 BC, meaning he was more than seventy years old by the time he delivered his prophecies.  From these facts, the picture of Haggai begins to come into focus. He was an older man looking back on the glories of his nation, a prophet imbued with a passionate desire to see his people rise up from the ashes of exile and reclaim their rightful place as God’s light to the nations.

516 BC (circa)
The Jewish Second Temple was a important shrine which stood in Jerusalem between 516 BC and 70 AD.  It replaced the First Temple, which was destroyed in 586 BC when the Jewish nation was exiled to Babylon.  Both temples were centers of Jewish sacrificial worship, and are still important today in the politics and history of Judaism.

509 BC
Rome becomes a republic.

490 BC
First time Greek men choose short haircuts.

480-470 BC
The book of Zechariah was written during this time. The book was written to give hope to God's people by revealing God's future deliverance through the Messiah.   It primarily addressed the Jews who had returned from their captivity, and written by The Prophet Zechariah.          Zechariah, a young man, especially when compared to his contemporary Haggai, came alongside the older prophet to deliver messages from the Lord to the Jewish remnant recently returned from Babylon.  While Haggai’s overall message had more of a cautionary tone to it (pointing out the Jews’ sin and self-focus),  Zechariah emphasized a tone of encouragement to the struggling Israelites trying to rebuild their temple.

479 BC
         Esther became Queen of the Persian Kingdom.  She was married to the Persian king Ahasuerus.  The Persian Queen Esther (492-460 BC), born as a Jewish exile named Hadassed, eventually became the queen of Persia, which during her lifetime was the greatest empire in the known world.  She was married to King Ahasuerus after he divorced the former queen for disobedience.  Esther would intercede in behalf of the Jewish people of the kingdom and prevent their annihilation.  Read and listen to the book of Esther starting with Chapter One.

473 BC
     First feast of Purim.

469 BC
Socrates, philosopher of the ancient world was born about this time.

460 BC
Birth of Democritus, who introduced an atomic theory by arguing that all bodies are made of indivisible and unchangeable atoms.

458 BC
Ezra returns to Jerusalem.

457 BC
The Golden Age in Athens, Greece begins.

457-444 BC
The book of Ezra was written during this time.  The book was written to show God's faithfulness and the way He kept His promise to restore His people to their land.  Ezra addressed the exiles who returned from captivity and was probably written by The Priest Ezra.
            Ezra was a direct descendant of Aaron the chief priest (7:1–5), thus he was a priest and scribe in his own right.  His zeal for God and God’s Law spurred Ezra to lead a group of Jews back to Israel during King Artaxerxes’s reign over the Persian Empire (which had since replaced the Babylonian Empire that originally exiled the people of Judah).

455 BC (circa)
Nehemiah led the third group of exiles from Babylon to Jerusalem with expressed permission from King Artaxerxes of Persia to rebuild the embattled city walls.

450-430 BC
The book of 1 Chronicles was written during this time.  The book was written to unify God's people, to trace the Davidic line, and to teach that genuine worship ought to be the center of individual and national life. The book was addressed to the exiles who returned from captivity and according to      Jewish tradition was written by Ezra. Several indications throughout the book reveal the author’s reliance on a variety of source materials—“annals,” “books,” and “records”—which are cited as dependable historical documentation.  “Whoever the author was, he was a meticulous historian who carefully utilized official and unofficial documents.”
            The book of 2 Chronicles was written during this time to unify the nation around true worship of God by showing God's standard for judging kings. The sins of evil kings were exposed.  The book was addressed to the exiles who returned from captivity and according to Jewish tradition was written by Ezra.  Second Chronicles covers the time from Solomon’s ascension to the throne (971 BC) until the southern kingdom of Judah was finally carried into exile in Babylon in 586 BC. The focus of the book is on Judah. The author was more concerned with telling the story of David’s descendants, who reigned over Judah, than with the history of the northern kingdom of Israel. The centrality of Jerusalem, where the temple was located, falls in line with the book’s overarching focus on the priesthood as well.

450-331 BC
The book of Esther was written during this time to demonstrate God's sovereignty and His loving care for His people.  The book was addressed to the people of Israel and written possibly by Mordeciai.  The book is named for the “star” of the story, a young Jewish girl named Hadassah who was taken from her guardian, Mordecai, and forced to compete for the affection of the king. This unlikely contestant for a beauty pageant was crowned queen of Persia and renamed Esther, meaning “star.”
           Not all of the Jews returned to Jerusalem when Cyrus issued his decree allowing them to do so.  Many Jews stayed in Persia and throughout the world where they had settled during the Exile.  Esther is one such woman.  The book of Esther is an example of God's divine guidance and care over our lives.  God's sovereignty and power are seen throughout this book.  Although we may question certain circumstances in our lives, we must have faith that God is in control, working through both the pleasant and difficult times so that we can serve Him effectively.          

445 BC
            Nehemiah rebuilds the embattled city walls of Jerusalem.

438 BC
The Parthenon in Athens was completed.  Work started on it in 447 BC.  A Greek sculptor named Phidias made a 60-foot-high statue of Zeus, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.  The statue was located in the Sanctuary of Olympia in Olympia, Greece home of the first Olympic Games.  See 776 BC

433-424 BC
The book of Malachi was written during this time to confront the people with their sins and to restore their relationship with God.  The book addressed the people of Jerusalem and was written by The Prophet Malachi.  The final book of the Old Testament, Malachi received its name from its author Malachi. . In Hebrew, the name comes from a word meaning “messenger,” which points to Malachi’s role as a prophet of the Lord, delivering God’s message to God’s people.1 Malachi offered no other identifying information about himself, leaving out markers typical of other prophets such as his father’s name or the current leader of Israel.

430 BC
         Malachi becomes the last of the minor prophets as well as the last book in the Old Testament.

424-400 BC
The book of
Nehemiah was written during this time to record the history of the Jewish people's return to Jerusalem after captivity, telling how the walls were rebuilt and the people renewed their faith.  The writer Nehemiah addressed the book to the exiles who returned from captivity.  The book of Nehemiah opens in the Persian city of Susa in the year 444 BC.  Later that year, Nehemiah traveled to Israel, leading the third of three returns by the Jewish people following their seventy years of exile in Babylon.   Most of the book centers on events in Jerusalem. 

399 BC
Socrates condemned to death by an Athenian jury.

390 BC
Aramaic begins to replace Hebrew as Jewish language.

384 BC
Aristotle was born.

370 BC
Plato writes his most famous book, "The Republic".

330 BC
Alexander the Great defeats the Persian empire.

312 BC
Romans build the first paved road, the "Appian Way," from Rome to Capua and on to Brindsi, in southeast Italy.  Its importance is indicated by its common name , recorded by Statius.     

241 BC
Romans conquer Sicily and add their first non-Italian territory to the Roman empire.

220 BC
This year started the construction of what is known now as the Great Wall of China.  Under Qin Shi Huang, section of earlier fortifications were joined together to form a united defense system against invasion from the north.  Construction continued up to the Ming Dynasty, when the Great Wall became the world's largest military structure.  Its historic and strategic importance is matched only by its architectural significance.   See 1368-1644

215 BC Circa
The Great Wall of China built.

169 BC
Temple of Jerusalem plundered by Antiochus IV.

146 BC
         The Building of the Via Egnatia.  The Via Egnatia was a Roman road that stretched from the Albanian port of Burrës on the Adriatic coast to Istanbul.  It carried commercial and military traffic across the Balkans and through Greece and Turkey sustaining the wealth of a Roman Empire.

134-104 BC
         About this time the Essenes lived in a settlement called Qumran, a mile inland from the northwest shore of the Dead Sea in Israel.  It is said by some scholars they translated the Bible as was written then to Hebrew.
            Fast forward to the year 1947; a shepherd boy stumbled on a cave near the settlement of Qumran in Israel and in a cave some jars made of clay.  In one one of the clay jars he found a manuscript, which later was discovered to be the Book of Isaiah.  The manuscript can be viewed today in the Shrine of the Book in Jerusalem.  See 1947

100 BC
Julius Caesar, first emperor of Rome was born.

74/75 BC
            Herod the Great was born in and around this year in Idumea, an area south of Judea sometimes known as Edom.   He was a Roman client king of Judea, referred to as the Herodian kingdom.   He has been described as "a madman who murdered his own family and a great many rabbis", "the evil genius of the Judean nation."  Herod built quite a few spectacular projects in Israel.  One was the harbor at Caesarea, another was a fortresses on Masada.  He also rebuilt the city of Samaria.  His most famous and ambitious projects was the expansion of the Second Temple in Jerusalem.  Recent findings suggest that the Temple Mount walls and Robinson's Arch may not have been completed until at least 20 years after his death, during the reign of Herod Agrippa II.  Herod died somewhere between the years 4 and 1 BC. in Jericho, Judea.  He was 69-75 years old when he died. 

55 BC
            Romans conquer England and make it part of the Roman empire until 442 AD.

51 BC
         Cleopatra becomes the last independent Egyptian ruler of the ancient world.  After her reign, Egypt became a province of the recently established Roman Empire.

37 BC
Herod the Great made king of Judea by the Romans.

19 BC (circa)
Herod the Great rebuilt the second temple on The Temple Mount on Mt. Moriah in Jerusalem.  In doing so Herod doubled the size of the Temple Mount.

18 BC (circa)
Mary, the mother of Jesus was born.

10 BC
Herod the Great, appointed by Rome as King of Judea. The grand limestone temple was dedicated by him about this year.  It was a renovation of the Second Temple built 500 years earlier when the Jews returned from Babylonian exile.  Jesus taught on the Temple Mount in the week before his death.  Herod was raised as a Jew.

5 BC
         John the Baptist was born in Jerusalem (Herodian kingdom)

            The interlude in our English Bible is scarcely noticeable. A simple turn of the page and you leave behind the Old Testament to enter the New Testament. The book of Matthew re-acquaints you with characters you've already come to know and admire; Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, David, and more. Yet a new character--indeed, a person who will claim to be the main character of the entire Bible--is now introduced: Jesus Christ. There is a period of 400 years plus, that separates the New Testament from the Old Testament. A lot of events went on during that time.


4BC (circa)
         Jesus Christ was born.  He was tried and sentenced to be crucified on a cross in the year 30 and was resurrected on the 3rd day.  He ascended into heaven 40 days after His crucifixion.
             Read a description of Jesus penned 600 years before He was born, written by the prophet Isaiah.
            "The life of our Lord Jesus Christ is of supreme importance to each believer.  He could not have died for our sins unless He had first left heaven and entered the human race through childbirth.  And His death would not have cleansed away our sins if He had not also been raised from the dead by the power of the Holy Spirit.   Almost as important are His miracles, His teachings, and the example of His sinless life.  Everything we can know with certainty about His life is revealed in the first four books of the New Testament (the gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, which comprise about 46 % of the New Testament."  Quote by Mr. Mike Reynolds  6/03/2011
            Herod the Great Dies.

The First Century

            The Apostle Matthew was born in the city of Nazareth. during this time period.  Date of birth is unknown.  He was a tax collector or toll gatherer before he met Jesus and became an Apostle.  He wrote his gospel in the Hebrew language, which was afterwards translated into Greek by James the Less.  The scene of his labors was Parthia, and Ethopia, in which latter country he suffered martyrdom, being slain with a halberd in the city of Nadabah in 60AD. (Couldn't find any information on the city of Nadabah, except is the country of Ethiopia)
            James the son of Alphaeus or James the less was born in the first part of the first century.  Date of birth is unknown.  He was called by Jesus to follow Him and be an Apostle. He was elected to the oversight of the churches of Jerusalem; and was the author of the epistle ascribed to James in the sacred canon.   At the age of ninety-four, he was beaten and stoned by the Jews; and finally had his brains dashed out with a fuller's club in 62AD. Another account says;  Later, because of his reputation for righteousness, Jewish leaders asked him to stand on the pinnacle of the temple and warn the people against the doctrine that Jesus had been resurrected and would come again.   When he did the opposite, they pushed him to the ground, stoned him, and beat him to death with a fuller's club.

            The Disciple Matthias was named by the eleven Apostles to take the place of Judas who betrayed Jesus.  Less is known about him than of most of the other disciples.  He was stoned at Jerusalem and then beheaded in 80 AD   According to Acts, he had been with Jesus from his baptism by John the Baptist until his Ascension.  He was one of the 120 disciples who followed Jesus during his earthly ministry. 
            Andrew was a disciple of Christ and was born in the early part of this century.  He was one of the twelve main disciples of Jesus Christ and the brother of Simon Peter.  Andrew was the first apostle Jesus called and the first apostle to claim Jesus was the Messiah.  Like his brother Simon Peter and several of the other disciples, Andrew was a fisherman.  In Matthew 4:18-20 and Mark 1:16-20.  Jesus first encounters Andrew when he's fishing near the shore of the Sea of Galilee with Peter.  Tradition holds that Andrew was martyred by crucifixion in the Greek city of Patras around 60AD.  Like his brother, Peter, Andrew allegedly didn't consider himself worth to die in the same way as Jesus, and tradition claims he was bound -  not nailed -  to a cross which was hung in an X shape instead of a cross similar to a T.
            The apostle Jude was born sometime during the First Century.  He was the brother of James and was commonly know as Thaddeus.  He was crucified at Edessa, Turkeyin 72 AD. 


1 AD
The Apostle Peter was born (circa) in Bethesda.  He was an outspoken disciple (one of the twelve) of Jesus and founder of thechurch in Antioch which is now in the eastern part of Turkey.  Peter died in Rome, Italy between 64-66 where he elected to be crucified upside down on a cross  Peter felt he was unworthy to die in the same way as his Savior. He received his death sentence from the Emperor Nero.  He was martyred, supposedly, between 64-68 on Vatican Hill, Rome..
            Saddles were first used in Europe.

            James the Greatwas born in Bethsaida, and was one of the sons of Zebedee, the elder brother of John and relative of out Lord, for his mother Salome was cousin-german (old fashion term for cousin) to the Virgin Mary.  He was the second of the Christian leaders that suffered Martyrdom that took place after the death of Stephen.  He died in 44 AD in Jerusalem.  James is the patron saint of Spain and, according to tradition, his remains are held in Santiago de Compostela in Galicia
            The Apostle Philip was born in Bethsaida, Galiee, Roman Empire.  He was one of the twelve Apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament.  Later Christina traditions describe Philip as the apostle who preached at Greece, Syria, and Phrytia   He suffered martyrdom at Heliopolis, in Phrygia.  He was scourged, thrown into prison, and afterwards crucified in 80 AD.
            John Mark was born during this year in Cyrene, Pantapolis of North Africa, according to Coptic tradition.  He wrote the 2nd book (Mark) in the New Testament.  Mark was born of Jewish parents of the tribe of Levi.  He is supposed to have been converted to Christianity by Peter, whom he served as a amanuensis, and under whose inspection he wrote his gospel in Greek language,.  Mark was dragged to pieces by the people of Alexandria /, at the great solemnity of Serapis, their idol, ending his life under their merciless hands.  It has been recorded that he died in 68 AD.  

5 AD circa
Paul was born in Tarsus, Cilicia, Roman Empire, which is now an eastern part of Turkey.  The apostle Paul (Saul) of Tarsus) a Roman citizen but from the tribe of Benjamin who would later become a Christian apostle after Paul met Jesus face to face on the road to Damascus.  He was proud of his Jewish Heritage and was schooled by a Pharisee named Gamaliel.  He was traveling on the road from Jerusalem to Damascus on a mission to arrest Christians and bring them back to Jerusalem in chains to face trial.  As he was approaching Damascus on the mission, a bright light from heaven suddenly shone down around him.  He fell to the ground and heard a voice saying to him, "Saul! Saul!  Why are you persecuting me?  And the voice replied, "I am Jesus, the one you are persecuting!  Now get up and go into the city (Damascus) and you will be told what you must do."  Saul was made blind by the light that shown down of him.  The Lord told Paul to go into Damascus to the house of Judas and stay there.  The men with him had to guide he as he could not see.  There was a believer in Damascus named Ananias and the Lord spoke to him in a vision,  The Lord said, "Go to the house of Judas and greet Saul for he is my chosen instrument to take my message to the Gentiles and to kings, as well as the people of Israel.  (Saul was also known as Paul as was a custom then to have dual names.)  After Acts 13:9 he was referred to as Paul.  During his time as a deliverer of the message from Jesus he suffered various persecutions at Jerusalem, Iconium, Lystra, Phillippi and Thessalonica. and made three missionary journeys before he was carried as a prisoner to Rome, for two years, and was then released.  He afterwards visited the churches of Greece and Rome, and preached the gospel in Spain and France, but when he was returning to Rome, he was apprehended by order of Nero, and was beheaded.  Fourteen of the twenty-seven books of the New Testament are attributed to Paul.  He died in 64-67AD in Rome, Italy at the age of 61-62.
            St.Stephen was born sometime during this year.  He was the first martyr of Christianity as told in the book of Acts, chapter six.  He was a deacon in the church in Jerusalem.  He made a speech denouncing the Jewish authorities who were sitting in judgment on him after which he was stoned to death.    Stephen died in 33-36 AD at the age of 26-32.  The following is a note from Foxes book of Martyrs: About two thousand Christians, with Nicanor, one of the seven deacons, suffered martyrdom during the "persecution which arose about Stephen>"
            John Mark was born during this year in Cyrene, Pantapolis of North Africa, according to Coptic tradition.  He wrote the 2nd book (Mark) in the New Testament.  Mark was born of Jewish parents of the tribe of Levi.  He is supposed to have been converted to Christianity by Peter, whom he served as a amanuensis, and under whose inspection he wrote his gospel in Greek language,.  Mark was dragged to pieces by the people of Alexandria, at the great solemnity of Serapis their idol, ending his life under their merciless hands.  It has been recorded that he died in 68 AD.   

6/7 AD
     Judea becomes a Roman province;  Jesus visits the temple in Jerusalem as a boy.

14 AD
Tiberius Caesar becomes Emperor of Judah.

26 AD
John the Baptist's ministry begins.  John was a contrast in every respect --from his prolonged isolation to his abrupt public appearance, from his rugged wilderness life to his dramatic preaching and baptizing ministry.  He was born to a woman named Elizabeth, who could not have children, she also was a direct descendant of Aaron.  His father was Zechariah who was priest but ministered as a prophet.  He reached Jewish society by removing himself from it.
            Taken in part from the book "Twelve Unlikely Heroes Study Guide."  By John MacArthur.

Jesus begins his ministry.      

28 AD
         Jesus chooses 12 disciples.  Luke 6:12-16 NIV  "When morning came, He called His disciples to Him and chose twelve of them, whom He also designated apostles:  Simon (whom he named Peter), and his brother Andrew, James, John, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James son of Alphaeus, Simon who was called the Zealot, Judas son of James, and Judas Iscariot, who became a traitor."
            John the Baptist died in 28-36 AD in Machaerus, Perea or the eastern side of the Jordan River.  John was beheaded by Herod Antipas after Herod's daughter Herodias dances before Herod.  He was so pleased that he said she could have anything she wanted.  She said, "I want the head of John the Baptist."  She got her wish. 

30 AD
         Jesus Christ was crucified on a cross in Jerusalem.  His crime was, "He was King of the Jews."

30 AD
Pentecost was held 50 days after the Passover.  At this time the Holy Spirit came on the disciples and they became Apostles.  (Pentecost is also called The Feast of Weeks).  This was the beginning of the Christian Church of Jesus.  Matthias was also elected to take the place of Judas Iscariot.

35 AD
             Paul was converted on the road to Damascus, where he intended to implement a similar persecution of Christians.  Paul the Christian, now himself the object of persecution, fled from Damascus to "Arabia."

35 AD
Stephen became the first Martyr.  His death was brought on by the manner in which he preached the gospel to the betrayers and murderers of Christ.  Upon hearing Stephen's message, they got riled to a point of madness, that they cast him out of the city and stoned him to death.  
            Upon this event a great persecution took place against all who professed their belief in Christ as the Messiah.  We are told in Luke's gospel that "there was a great persecution against the church, which was at Jerusalem;" and that "they were all scattered abroad throughout the regions of Judea and Samaria, except the apostles."  
            About two thousand Christians, with Nicanor, one of the seven deacons, suffered martyrdom during the "persecution which arose about Stephen."

37 AD
         Josephus, the Jewish historian, was born in this year of a priestly Jewish family.  He was well educated, and followed the Pharisaic form of Judaism.  He died around the year 100.  We depend on Josephus for most of our knowledge of the New Testament background,  He has short, specific references to Jesus, John the Baptist and James, the brother of Jesus,  Josephus is a rather wordy writer, but generally reliable.

38 AD
         In about this year Paul went to Jerusalem, where he met Peter and the other apostles,  After only fifteen days he traveled on to his home in Tarsus.

40 AD
Herod Agrippa was appointed King of Judea.

43 AD
First definite reference to diamonds.  Diamonds were first found in India.
            We may assume that Paul proclaimed his message of Christ in his homeland, Celica.  Otherwise it would hardly have occurred to Barnabas, who was a leader of the flourishing Christian community at Antioch of the Orontes, to bring Paul the Christian zealot to Antioch in about this year.

44 AD 
         In this year, Barnabas took Paul to Jerusalem.  There they delivered the collection from the community at Antioch to the Christian community of Jerusalem, which was suffering persecution. 

44-49 AD
The book of
James was written during this time to refute the Judaizers (who taught that Gentile believers must obey the Jewish law in order to be saved), and to call Christians to faith and freedom in Christ.  The book addressed the first-century Christians and written by the Apostle James, the brother of Jesus.  The apostle James was executed by King Herod Agrippa during this time span.  These notes were copied from the Life Application Study Bible NIV.

46-48 AD
         During this time the Apostle Paul set out on his first missionary journey.  It was the shortest, in time and distance, of the first three, but it was nevertheless a very significant development in the history of the new Christian church.  It established Paul as a leader in the spreading of The Word of God.    See Acts 13:1-14:28.   
            St. Paul departed from Syrian Antioch (modern Antakya) and journeyed to Turkey where he stopped at Attalia (modern Antalya), Perge (where he preached for the first time in Asia), Iconium (modern Konya), Lystra and Derbe (modern Kerti Huyuk), establishing churches in Galatia and witnessing to both Jews and Gentiles.  On his return he retraced his journey visiting these churches.

48-50 AD
            The book of
Galatians was written during this time to refute the Judaizers (who taught that Gentile believers must obey the Jewish law in order to be saved), and to call Christians to faith and freedom in Christ. The apostle Paul wrote Galatians in Antioch, which was then in Syria.  The book was written to the Christians in Pisidian Antioch, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe, South Galatia.  These notes were copied from the Life Application Study Bible NIV.

49-52 AD
Paul's second missionary journey.  This was the most fruitful of Paul's missionary career, covering hundreds of miles and resulting in the planting of the gospel on European soil.  With Salias as his partner, Paul left Jerusalem and stopped at Syrian Antioch, then traveled overland for a brief stop at Tarsus, his hometown. Then they pushed on westward to visit and strengthen the young churches at Derbe and Lystra in Southern Galatia.  This is where Timothy joined him.  They also visited Iconium. They were prevented by the Holy Spirit from stopping in Asia, then proceeded to Antioch of Psidia and the city of Troas on the eastern shoreline of the Aegean Sea.  Here, through a vision, Paul was beckoned to enter the providence of Macedonian Greece (Thrace), the extreme southern tip of the European continent.  
            They set sail in Troas and landed at Neapolis, then went by land to Philippi. Here the Philippian jailer and others were converted.  Then moved on to Amphipolis, Thessalonica and Berea.  Then went on to Athens where he preached his famous sermon about the "Unknown God," on Mars Hill.  Then traveled on the Corinth.  Here Paul stayed about 1-1/2 year, supporting himself as a tentmaker with establishing a church.  Then they crossed the Aegean Sea to Ephesus, then made their way around the southern coast of Asia into the Mediterranean for the long trip back to Jerusalem.  

50 AD
         The first church council took place in Jerusalem.  A dispute arose when some Judeans taught that Gentile believer had to be circumcised to be saved.  Paul and Barnabas went to Jerusalem to discuss this situation with the leaders there,  After the Jerusalem council made its decision that Gentiles did not need to become Jews to follow Jesus , Paul and Barnabas returned to Antioch with the news.
            The city of London, England was founded.  
            The Romans first started using soap.

50-60 AD
            The book (Gospel) of Mark
was written during this time to present the person, work, and teaching of Jesus.  John Mark was not one of the 12 disciples.  The Gospel was addressed to the Christians in Rome, where the book was written by John Mark.  "The Bible records more information about Mark than any of the other gospel writers aside from the apostle John.  Luke mentioned Mark’s name several times in Acts. A budding Jerusalem church met in his mother’s home. Mark also started the first missionary journey with Paul and Barnabas but went home early, though he later traveled with Barnabas to Cyprus for more mission work.  He became significant in the life of Paul, being one of the last people the apostle mentioned in his final letter (2 Timothy 4:11).  The Church of Ephesus was established on Paul's homeward journey to Jerusalem. The setting for the gospel:  The Roman empire under was under the rule of Tiberius Caesar.  The empire, with its common language and excellent transportation and communication systems, was ripe to hear Jesus' message, which spread quickly from nation to nation.   These notes were copied from the Life Application Study Bible NIV.

50-60 AD
The book (Gospel) of
Matthew was written during this time to prove that Jesus is the Messiah, the eternal King and was addressed to primarily the Jews and was written by Matthew (Levi).  Setting: Matthew was a Jewish tax collector who became one of Jesus' disciples.  This Gospel forms the connecting link between the Old and New Testaments because of the emphasis on the fulfillment of prophecy.  In Matthew, Jesus teaches people what it means to be part of his kingdom, the “Kingdom of Heaven.”  He was betrayed and crucified, He rose again on the third day after he was crucified and commissioned His disciples to spread the good news that He taught while he was with them.  Matthew is filled with messianic language ("Son of David" is used through out) and Old Testament references (53 quotes and 76 other references).  This Gospel was not written as a chronological account; its purpose to present the clear evidence that Jesus is the Messiah, and Savior.   These notes were copied from the Life Application Study Bible NIV.

51 AD 
The book of
1 Thessalonians was written during this time to strengthen the Thessalonians Christians in their faith and give them the assurance of Christ's return.  The book was written by Paul and was written to the church at Thessalonica.  The church at Thessalonica was very young, having been established only two or three years before this letter was written.  The Thessalonian Christians needed to mature in their faith,.  In addition, their was a misunderstanding concerning Christ's second coming---some thought Christ would return immediately, thus, they were confused when their loved ones died because the expected Christ to return beforehand.  Also, believers were being persecuted.  These notes were copied from the Life Application Study Bible NIV.  

51-52 AD
            The book of 2 Thessalonians was written during this time to clear up the confusion about the second coming of Christ.  The book was written to the church at Thessalonica and was authored by the Apostle Paul.  Many in the church were confused about the timing of Christ's return.  Because of mounting persecution, they thought the day of the Lord must be imminent, and they interpreted Paul's first letter to say that the second coming would be at any moment.  In light of this misunderstanding, many persisted in being idle and disorderly, with the excuse of waiting for Christ's return.  This a follow-up letter to 1 Thessalonians.  In this letter, Paul indicated various events that must precede the second coming of Christ.  These notes were copied from the Life Application Study Bible NIV.

53 AD 
            The Church of Ephesus was established on Paul's homeward journey to Jerusalem.

54 AD
Nero becomes emperor of Rome.

53-58 AD
Paul's third missionary journey:  he departed again from Syrian Antioch for Tarsus to revisit the churches in Derbe, Iconium, and Pisidian Antioch.  He then traveled to Laodicea and to Ephesus where he remained for three years ministering "to the Jews first but also the the Greeks."  From there he proceeded to Smyrna, (modern day Izmir) and Pergamum.  Afterwards he visited Troas again on the way to Greece.  He re-entered Turkey with stops at Assos, Miylene, Samos, Miletus and Patara before returning to Ceaserea and Jerusalem.  See Acts 18:23 - 21:16  

55 AD
            The book of 1 Corinthians was written during this time to identify problems in the Corinthian church, to offer solutions, and to teach the believers how to live for Christ in corrupt society..  The book was addresses the church in Corinth and was written by Paul.  Corinth was a major cosmopolitan city, a seaport and major trade center --The most important city Achaia.  It was also filled with idolatry and immorality.  The church was largely made up of Gentiles.  Paul had established this church on his second missionary journey.  These notes were copied from the Life Application Study Bible NIV

55-56 AD
              The book of 2 Corinthians was written during this time to affirm Paul's ministry, defend his authority as an apostle, and refute the false teachers in Corinth.  The book was written to the church in Corinth and authored by the Apostle Paul.  Paul had already written three letters to the Corinthians (two are now lost).  In 1 Corinthians (the second of these letters), he used strong words to correct and teach. Most of the church had responded in the right spirit; there were, however, those who were denying Paul's authority and questioning his motives.  These notes were copied from the Life Application Study Bible NIV.

56 AD 
The book of  Romans was written during this time to introduce Paul to the Romans and to give a sample of his message before he arrived in Rome.  The book was addressed to the Christians in Rome and was authored by the Apostle Paul.  Apparently Paul had finished his work in the east, and he planned to visit Rome on his way to Spain after first bringing a collection to Jerusalem for the poor Christians there.  The Roman church was mostly Jewish but also contained a great number of Gentiles.  Paul wrote Romans as an organized and carefully presented statement of his faith --it does not have the form of a typical letter.  He does, however, spend considerable time greeting people in Rome at the end of the letter.   These notes were copied from the Life Application Study Bible NIV.

57-59 AD
Paul was imprisoned in Caesarea on the Mediterranean coast of Israel. Caesarea is now a national park in Israel and a very interesting place to visit.  The amphitheater has been rebuilt and shows are held there regularly.  There are 81 national parks in Israel to date.

58 AD
              Paul was arrested in Jerusalem:  When Paul arrived in Jerusalem, zealous Jews incited a riot against him.  He was arrested by the Romans and remanded to the custody of the Procurator Felix in Caesarea,  Paul insisted on his right as a Roman citizen to be tried before an imperial court.  He was subsequently sent to Rome.

60-61 AD
The book of Luke was written during this time to present an accurate account of the life of Christ and to present Christ as the perfect human and Savior and was addressed to the Gentiles and Theophilus ("one who loves God").  The book was written by Luke, a doctor a Greek, and Gentile Christian.  He is only known Gentile author in the New Testament.  Luke was a close friend and companion of Paul.  He also wrote Acts, and the two books (Luke and Acts) go together.  This is the most comprehensive of the Gospels.  The general vocabulary and diction show that tha author was educated,   He makes frequent references to illnesses and diagnoses.  Luke stresses Jesus' relationships with people; emphasizes prayer, miracles, and angels; records inspired hymns of praise; gives a prominent place to women.  These notes were copied from the Life Application Study Bible NIV. 

60-62 AD
The book of
Ephesians was written during this time to strengthen the believers in Ephesus in their Christian faith by explaining the nature and purpose of the church, the body of Christ.  The book was written by Paul and was addressed to the church at Ephesus, then circulated to neighboring local churches.  The letter was not written to confront any heresy of problem in the churches it was sent with Tychicus to strengthen and encourage the churches in the area.  Paul had spent over three years with the Ephesian church.  As a result, he was very close to them,  Paul met with the elders of the Ephesian church at Miletus (Acts 20:17-38)--a meeting that was filled with great sadness because he was leaving them for what he thought would be the last time.  Because the letter contains no specific references to people or problems in the Ephesian church and because the words "at Ephesus" are not present in some early manuscripts.  Paul may have intended this to be a circular letter to ber read to all the churches in the area.  These notes were copied from the Life Application Study Bible NIV.

60-62 AD
            The book of
Philippians was written during this time to thank the Philippians for the gift they had sent Paul and to strengthen these believers by showing them that true joy comes from Jesus Christ alone. The book was addressed to the Christians at Philippi and was written by Paul.  Paul and his companions began the church at Philippi on his second missionary journey (Acts 16:11-40)a.  This was the first church established on the European continent.  The Philippian church has sent a gift with Epaphroditus (one of their members) to be delivered to Paul.  Paul was in a Roman prison at the time.  He wrote this letter to thank them for their gift and to encourage them in their faith.  These notes were copied from the Life Application Study Bible NIV.

60-62 AD
            The book of
Philemon was written during this time with the purpose to convince Philemon to forgive his runaway slave, Onesimus, and to accept him as a brother in the faith.  The book was written by the Apostle Paul to Philemon , who was probably a wealthy member of the Colossian church.
Slavery was very common in the Roman empire, and evidently some Christians had slaves.  Paul does not condemn the institution of slavery in his writings, but he makes a radical statement by calling this slave Philemon's brother in Christ.

60-62 AD
            The book of
Colossians was written during this time to combat errors in the church and to show that believers have everything they need in Christ,  The book was addressed to the church at Colosse, a city in Asia Minor, which is in the country of Turkey.  The book was written by the Apostle Paul.  Setting: Paul had never visited Colosse.  Evidently the church had been founded by Epaphras and other converts from Paul's missionary travels.  The church, however, had been infiltrated by religious relativism, with some believers attempting to combine elements of paganism and secular philosophy with Christian doctrine.  Paul confronts these false teachings and affirms the sufficiency of Christ.

61 AD
         The ship with the prisoner Paul sailed from Caesarea in autumn of the year 60.  A shipwreck, followed by severe storms, necessitated wintering on Malta.  It was not until the year 61 that Paul set foot on Italian soil.

62 AD
            The book of Acts was written during this time to give an accurate account of the birth and growth of the Christian church.  The book was written by Luke (a Gentile physician) and was addressed to Theophilus. The book of Acts is the connecting link between Christ's life and the life of the church, between the Gospels and the Letters.  The book of Acts is a sequel to the Gospel of Luke.  Because Acts ends so abruptly, Luke may have planned to write a third book, continuing the story.

62-64 AD
The book of 1 Timothy was written by the Apostle Paul during this time to give encouragement and instruction to Timothy, a young leader.  Timothy was one of Paul's closest companions.  Paul had sent Timothy to the church a Ephesus to counter the false teaching that had arisen there.  Timothy probably served for a time as a leader in the church at Ephesus, Paul hoped to visit Timothy, but in the meantime, he wrote this letter to give Timothy practical advice about the ministry.

62-64 AD
The book of Titus was written during this time by Paul to advice Titus in the responsibility of supervising the churches on the Island of CreteSetting: Paul sent Titus to organize on oversee the churches on Crete.  This letter tells Titus how to do this job.

64 AD 
         The Burning of Rome took place.  Flames destroyed nearly three-fourths of the capital city.  Emperor Nero blamed and persecuted the Christians for the fire.

64-65 AD 
            The book of 1 Peter was written by Peter during this time to offer encouragement to suffering Christians.  Peter used several images that were very special to him because Jesus had used them when He had revealed certain truths to Peter.  Peter's name (which means "rock") had been given to him by Jesus.  Peter's conception of the church--a spiritual house composed to living stones built upon Christ as the foundation--had come from Christ.  Jesus had encouraged Peter to care for the church as a shepherd tending the flock.  Thus, it is not surprising to see Peter using living stones and shepherds and sheep to describe the church.  Setting:  Peter was probably in Rome when the great persecution under Emperor Nero began.  (Eventually Peter was executed during this persecution.)  Throughout the Roman empire, Christians were being tortured and killed for their faith, and the church in Jerusalem was being scattered.

66 AD (Circa) 
              The Apostle Paul was be-headed.  He is buried at Basilica of St. Paul Outside the Walls in Rome, Italy.  There is also a painting of the beheading of the apostle Paul on display at the church  by Enrique Simonet, created in 1887.

66-67 AD
            The book of 2 Timothy was written during this time to give final instructions and encouragement to Timothy, pastor of the church at Ephesus. The book was written by Paul and was addressed to Timothy.  Setting: Paul was virtually alone in prison' only Luke was with him.  Paul wrote this letter to pass the torch to the new generation of church leaders.  He also asked for visits from his friends and for his books, especially the parchments--possibly parts of the Old Testament, the Gospels, and other Biblical manuscripts.  These notes were copied from the Life Application Study Bible NIV. .

67 AD
The Apostle Paul was martyred in Rome:  In Rome, Paul  was kept under house arrest for two years.  We do not know whether his case was ever heard before a court.  We are equally ignorant of the possibility of any further journeying by the Apostle.  The martyrdom of Paul is reported only by second-century sources.  As a Roman citizen, he may have been beheaded, perhaps in this year.

67-68 AD
The book of
2 Peter was written during this time to warn Christians about false teachers and to exhort them to grow in their faith in and knowledge of Christ.  The book was written to the church at large by Peter.  Setting:  Peter knew that his time on earth was limited, so he wrote about what was on his heart, warning believers of what would happen when he was gone--especially about the presence of false teachers.  He reminded his readers of the unchanging truth of the gospel.  These notes were copied from the Life Application Study Bible NIV.  

67-69 AD
The book of
Hebrews was written during this time to present the sufficiency and superiority of Christ.  The author could be any of the following: Paul, Luke, Barnabas, Apollos, Silas, Phillip, Pricilia and other have been suggested because the name of the author is not given in the Biblical text itself.  Whoever it was speaks of Timothy as "brother."(13:23)  The book was written to the Hebrew Christians perhaps because of immaturity, stemming from a lack of understanding of Biblical truths.  Setting: These Jewish Christians were probably undergoing fierce persecution, socially and physically, both from Jews and from Romans.  Christ has not returned to establish his kingdom, and the people needed to be reassured that Christianity was true and that Jesus was indeed the Messiah.  These notes were copied from the Life Application Study Bible NIV.  

68 AD
         June 9, Roman Emperor Nero died at the age of 30

68-70 AD
The book of
Jude was written during this time to remind the church of the need for constant vigilance--to keep strong in the faith and to oppose heresy.  The book was written by Jude, brother of Jesus and James to the Jewish Christians.  Setting:  From the first century on, the church has been threatened by heresy and false teaching, we must always be on out guard.  Jude's letter focuses on apostasy--when people turn away from God's truth and embrace false teachings.  Jude reminded his readers of God's judgment on those who had left the faith.  This letter warns against false teachers--in this case, probable Gnostic teachers.  Gnostics opposed two of the basic tenets of Christianity--the incarnation of Christ and the call to Christian ethics.  Jude wrote of combat the false teachings and to encourage true doctrine and right conduct.   These notes were copied from the Life Application Study Bible NIV. 

69 AD 
         Polycarp was born.  He was a Church Father and Bishop of Smyrna, which is now called Izmir, located on the west coast of Turkey.  He was martyred by being burnt at the stake.  The fire didn't touch him so the executioner ordered him pierced with a sword.  This took place in the year 155.  See Fox's book of Martyrs, page 9. 

70 AD 
            The Destruction of the Jerusalem Temple by the Roman army.  6,000 Jews died on the Temple Mount as the Roman army crushed a revolt, torching the Temple and demolishing the complex..  Israel fell under Roman Rule.

            Construction of the Coliseum in Rome began under the rule of Emperor Vespasian.  It was completed in 80 AD under Titus.  It is an elliptical amphitheater in the center of the city of Rome, Italy, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire, built of concrete and stone.  It is considered one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and Roman engineering. 

        The siege of Masada by Roman soldiers led to a mass " suicide" of the 960 Jewish people who lived there.  Seven people were taken captive.  In 1971, a cable car was built to haul equipment and visitors to the top of the mountain.  In 1998, the original cable car was replaced by one that had no supports in its length to hold up the cable.  At the lower terminal of the cable car is an awesome building that houses a display that shows the history, images, and artifacts of Masada. Up on top most of the structures have partially been restored so a visitor can get an idea of what life was like up there.  Looking over wall on the west side you can make out the outline of the Roman camps and see the siege ramp that was built to gain access to the fortified installation.  Looking over the north end you can see the top of Herod's palace.  A walking trail is available in case a person wants to walk down to it.  A trail is also available for walking down up and down the mountain in case you don't feel like riding the cable car.  It is called the "snake path." 

August 24, (circa) Mount Vesuvius in Italy, erupted and destroyed the city of Pompeii, first by the hot gasses then was buried under 16 to 20 foot of volcanic ash.   Other city's destroyed were Herculaneum along with Pompeii were the two most famous cities affected by the eruption but there were towns named Oplontis, Stabiae, which were also affected.

            Marcion of Sinope was born.  He wan early Christian Theologian , and evangelist and an important figure in  early Christianity.  Some early Church Fathers such as Justin Martyr, Irenaeus and Tertulian denounced him as a heretic.  He died in 160 AD in Anatolia, Roman Empire.

The book of
John was written during this time to prove conclusively that Jesus is the Son of God and that all who believe in Him will have eternal life.  The book was written by John the apostle, son of Zebedee, brother of James, called a "Son of Thunder" and was addressed to the New Christians and searching non-Christians.  Setting: Written after the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD and before John's exile to the island of Patmos.  John makes it clear that Jesus is not just a man; He is the eternal Son of God,  He is the light of the world because He offers His gift of eternal life to all people.  How blind and foolish to call Jesus nothing more that an unusually good man or moral teacher.  Yet we sometime act as if this were true when we casually toss around His words and go about living our own way.  If Jesus is the eternal Son on God, we should pay attention to His divine identity and life-giving message.   These notes were copied from the Life Application Study Bible NIV

The book of
1 John was written during this time to reassure Christians in their faith and to counter false teachings.  The letter us untitled and was  written to no particular chruch,  It was sent as a pastoral letter to several Gentile congregations and was written by the Apostle John.  Setting: John was and older man and perhaps the only surviving apostle at this time.  He had not yet been banished to the island of Patmos, where he would live in exile.  As an eyewitness of Christ, he wrote authoritatively to give this new generation of believers assurance and confidence in God and in their faith.  John is the apostle of love, and love is mentioned throughout this letter.  There are a number of similarities between this letter and John's Gospel--in vocabulary, style, and main ideas.  John uses brief statements and simple words, and he features sharp contrasts--light and darkness, truth and error, God and Satan, life and death, and love and hate.
            The book of
2 John was written during this time to emphasize the basics of following Christ--truth and love--and to warn against false teachers.  The letter was written to the "chosen lady" and her children--or possibly to a local church by the apostle John.  Setting: Evidently this woman and her family were involved in one of the churches that John was overseeing--they had developed a strong friendship with John,  John was warning her of the false teachers who were becoming prevalent in some of the churches.  False teachers were a dangerous problem for the church to which John was writing His warening against showing hospitality to false teachers may sound harsh and unloving to many today.  Yet these men were teaching heresy that could seriously harm many believers--for eternity.
            The book of
3 John was written during this time to commend Gaius for his hospitality and to encourage him in his Christian life.  The letter was written to Gaius, a prominent Christian in one of the churches know to John.  Setting: Church leaders traveled from town to town helping to establish new congregations.  They depended on the hospitality of fellow believers.  Gaius was one who welcomed these leaders into his home. These notes were copied from the Life Application Study Bible NIV

The book of
Revelation was written during this time to reveal the full identity of Christ and to give warning and hope to believers.  The book was addressed to the seven churches in Asia and all believers everywhere.  It was written on the island of Patmos by the apostle John.  Setting: Most scholars believe that the seven churches of Asia (Pergamum, Thyateira, Smyrna (now a part of the Turkish city of Izmir), Sardis, Philadelphia, Laodicea, and Ephesus) to whom John writes were experiencing the persecution that took place under the Emperor Domitian (90-95 AD).  It seems that the Roman authorities had exiled John to the island of Patmos (off the coast of Asia).  John, who had been an eyewitness of the incarnate Christ, had a vision of the glorified Christ.  God also revealed to John what would take place in the future--Judgment and the ultimate triumph of God over evil.   These notes were copied from the Life Application Study Bible NIV  Theme:  John writes to encourage the faithful to stand firm against persecution and compromise in the light of imminent return of Christ to deliver the righteous and judge the wicked.  Overview: Revelation is a book of hope; its central message is that God and good will win over evil, no matter how bad things look now.  Its author, the apostle John, encourages his readers to live a committed, holy life in order to participate in God's victorious kingdom.  The Bible says the book was written to seven churches in the Roman Province of Asia (present-day Turkey) to warn them against falling away from their faith in Christ.  It also offered assurance of ultimate victory to those who remain on God's side.  Revelation is apocalyptic literature.  The Greek word apocalypse means " uncovering," "unveiling," or "revelation."  Jewish apocalyptic writing uses figurative language and symbolism to show that evil will be replaced by the goodness and peace of God's kingdom.  As you read look for a combination of warnings and encouragements, challenge, and hope.  Watch for descriptions of the future, as God's kingdom ultimately conquers evil in the last days.   Also notice the picture of the ruling Christ, His divine attributes, and His heavenly glory.   The Theme and Overview are taken from Bible

        Timothy was the celebrated disciple of St. Paul, and bishop of Ephesus, where he zealously governed the Church until AD 97.  At this period, as the pagans were about to celebrate a feast called Catagogion, Timothy, meeting the procession, severely reproved them for their ridiculous idolatry, which so exasperated the people that they fell upon him with their clubs, and beat him in so dreadful a manner that he died of the bruises two days later.  From "Fox's Book of Martyrs," the second persecution, under Domitian, AD 81.

        The Odes of Solomon were written about this time, in or near Syria.  They were found in 1909 and believed to be the first Christian hymnal.  They were lovely hymns of praise composed by an anonymous Christian Poet.  They were translated and set to music.  Forty one of the Forty Two Odes exist today.  Number Seventeen is called "I Have Been Freed," which combines ancient and modern words.  Translated and set to music, we hear the authors heart of worship and share in the truths that transcend time and place.  This hymn of praise was sung by an ensemble at Temple Baptist Church on September 13, 2009.  See the bulletin
            Justin Martyr was born in this year in what is known now as Nablus, Israel but which now is a part of Palestine. Justin was a convert from paganism, but became the most notable of the second century 'apologists' (writers defending the Christian faith). He was an early Christian apologist and philosopher.  Justin was martyred, along with some of his students in year 165 in Rome, Roman Empire.  It seems likely that his bold ministry was cut short in its full vigour.  He had presented his faith as both scriptural and reasonable in the face of objections by both Jews and pagans.

112 Circa
            Pliny wrote a letter to Emperor Trajan   Pliny was the governor of Pontus, an area in Northern Turkey asking the Emperor Trajan how to handle Christians.  Trajan ordered Pliny not to pursue Christians.  Only when people were accused of being Christians were they to be hunted down.       

            Construction began on the Library of Celsus which is located in the ancient city of Ephesus, Turkey.  Construction on the library was finished in the year 120.

            Irenaeus was born during this year in Smyrna, Turkey.  He was a Greek bishop noted for his role in guiding and expanding Christian communities in what is now the south of France and more widely, for the development of Christian theology by combating heresy and defining orthodoxy.  Originating from Smyrna, he had seen and heard the preaching of Polycarp, the last known living connection with the Apostles, to in turn was said to have heard John the Evangelist.

            Tertellian was born in Carthage, Tunisia.  He was the first major Christian author to write in Latin.  He was therefore the first to use many of the technical words common in later Christian theological debates.  He was a prolific, early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa.  He was the first Christian author to produce a corpus (an extensive collection of written texts, especially the entire works of a particular author of a body of writing on a particular subject) of Latin Christian literature.   He was an early Christian apologist and polemicist ( a person who engages in controversial debate) against heresy, including contemporary Christian Gnosticism. Tertullian died in 220 at the age of 64-65 in Carthage, Roman Empire.

162 Circa
            A girl named Blandina was born in Lugdunum, Roman Empire which is now Lyon, France.  She was a slave girl who along side the city's leading pastor were accused of being Christians.  She belongs to a band of martyrs of Lyon, France who, after some of their number had endured frightful tortures, suffered martyrdom in the year 177 during the reign of Marcus Aurelius.

            Hippolytus of Rome was born during this year.  He was a Roman Theologian.  He recorded the Apostolike Paradosis (Apostolic Tradition), which includes an early form of the Apostles' Creed.  He died in the year 236.

            Felicity was a North African slave girl and a Christian.  They lived in Carthage, a city in North Africa.  She was martyred with Perpetua, a fellow Christian.  Felicity bore a child in prison,  Their captor scoffed, "You're in such pain now`  What will you do when you're thrown to the beasts?'"  She replied, "Now, I suffer alone, Then, there will be another in me.  He suffered for me for I am about to suffer for Him."  They died in 203c in Cathage.  They were arrested and executed at the military games in celebration of the Emperor Septimius Severus's birthday.

            Origen of Alexandria was born sometime during this year. He was third-century Christian scholar. One important outline of basic Christian beliefs in the late second and early third centuries was the Rule of Faith.  Origen described it as: the teaching of the church preserved unaltered and handed down in unbroken succession from the apostles.  In reality it indicated what particular writers or churches taught, especially against heretics, but also to new converts, as the central message of the Bible.  The Rule was known by several names: 'the faith', 'the tradition', 'the preaching' and the 'Rule of Truth'.  It claimed to represent an apostolic tradition of teaching, and was even appealed to in the dispute over the Christian Pascha. (Also called Easter.)  In his later life he was put in prison by the Roman Ruler Decius and tortured for his faith in God but Origen refused to renounce his faith in Christ. He ended up being in prison for two years.  After the death of Decius, Origen was released from prison and died shortly after in 253 AD  in Tyre, Lebanon of his wounds received from the torture he endured while in prison..

            In AD 250 the most violent persecution the church had yet faced was instigated by the Emperor Decius (249-251).  Imperial edicts commanded all citizens of the Empire to sacrifice to the traditional Roman gods.  Those who do so were given certificates (libelli, in Latin) as evidence that they had obeyed the order.  Those who refused to obey and we unable (or unwilling) to obtain false libelli from sympathetic or corrupt officials were executed.  

            Basil the Great was born in Kaysen, Turkey  He was an East Roman bishop of Caesarea Mazaca in Cappadocia, Asia Minor now know as Turkey.  He was an influential theologian who supported the Nicene Creed and opposed the heresies of the early Christian church, fighting against both Arianism and the followers of Apollinaris of Laodicea.  He ability to balance his theological convictions with his political connections made Basil a powerful advocate to the Nicene position.  Basil died January 1, 379 AD in Kaysen, Turkey

263 - 339 circa
             Eusebius was the first to attempt a history of the church on a grand scale.  Born in Palestine, Caesarea Maritima,he was on the run during the Great Persecution.He saw many martyrdoms in Egypt and was himself imprisoned for his faith in 313-314.

296 Circa
             Athanasois was born in the Roman territory of Alexandria, Egypt.  He later became a deacon in the church of Alexandria.  In the year 325 he accompanied his bishop Alexander to the Council of Nicaea.  At the Council of Nicaea Athanasois defended the Councils definition of Christ as of the same substance with God, and Nicaea's rejection of Arianism.  He succeeded Alexander as bishop in 328.  He died on May 2, 373 in Alexandria, Egypt.

            Ambrose of Milan was born in Trier, Germany.  After the death of the Arian bishop of Milan, Ambrose was elected bishop by popular acclaim even though at that time he was not even baptized.  He became famous both as a preacher and as a church administrator and politician.  He was baptized by Augustine in 387.  He was the first to introduce community hymn-singing in the church,  He died April 4, 397 in Milan, Italy at the age of 58.

342-347 circa
             Jerome was born during this time in the area of modern Croatia.  He was a Latin priest, confessor, theologian and historian, and is best known as Saint Jerome.  He is known for his translation of most of the Bible into Latin (known as the Vulgate).  Jerome's quote about the Latin Bible; "I am not so stupid as to think that any of the Lord's words either need correcting or are not divinely inspired: but the Latin manuscripts of the Scriptures are proved faulty by the variations which are found in all of them.  My aim has been to restore them to the form of the Greek original, from which my critics do not deny that the have been translated."  Jerome spent the last thirty-three years of his life in Bethlehem.  (There is a chapel next to the Church of the Nativity in the city of Bethlehem called the Church of St. Catherine that has a statue of Jerome in the courtyard in front of the chapel.)  The complex of caves in which he did his studies and writings are under the chapel.  He died on September 30, 420 at the age of 73-78.

            John Chrysostom was born this year in Antioch, located in Southeastern Turkey.  He became known as the greatest of Christian preachers. he was brought up by his devoted mother Anthusa, who at twenty was left a widow with an infant son.  John's father, Secundus was a high ranking military officer who died shortly after his birth. John's teacher, the pagan orator Libanius, paid Anthusa the tribute< "God, what women these Christians have!"  John was baptized at the age of eighteen and became a reader or lector in the church.  His devotion to ascetic practices, including two years living alone in a mountain cave, ruined his health.  Returning to the city, he was ordained a deacon in 381 and presbyter in 386.  From the latter date he was appointed to preach in the principal church in Antioch, where he built up his reputation as a preacher.  In 397, John was chosen bishop of Constantinople against his will and consecrated to that position in 398.  He was unsuited for the intrigues and pressures of Constantinople.  His efforts to raise the moral climate of the capital met strong opposition.  His enemies joined forces: the Empress Eudoxia, stung by his attacks on sin in high places; local clergy who found John too strict; and Theophilus, patriarch of Alexandria, jealous of a churchman from Antioch at the capital.  They had John deposed at the "synod of the Oak' in 403. The Emperor accepted the decision and exiled him.  The people of Constantinople rioted in support of their bishop; the Emperor was frightened by the response and recalled John the next day.  He ended up being exiled again in 404 and ended up dying on September 14, 407 at.Comana Pontica.

         November 13, St. Augustine of Hippo was born this day in Algeria.  Latin Patristic (Study of early church fathers) theologian and scriptural "exegete" = critical interpretation of Scripture.   He believedthe grace of Christ was indispensable to human freedom.   He was educated in North Africa and was the bishop of Hippo from about 390 until his death.  The theology he shaped dominated the West until the thirteenth century and greatly influenced the Reformation.  His predestination views formed the foundation for various mission theologians during those periods.  He died on August 28, 430 at the age of 75, was the bishop of Hippo for about 40 years.

            Cyril of Alexandria was born during this year.  Although he was an important figure who became a brilliant representative of the Alexandrian theology, the early life of Cyril is obscure.   He was accepted into the ranks of the clergy by his nephew Theophilus, patriarch of Alexandria, and in 403 he accompanied Theophilus to Constantinople.  Despite opposition he was elected in 412 to succeed Theophilus as patriarch of Alexandria.  His main concern was to combat Nestorianism.  Acting on behalf of Celestine of Rome, Cyril convened the council of Alexandria in 430, which demanded that Nestorius recant.  Cyril's twelve anathemas against Nestorius wer countered with twelve from Nestorius.  Cyril headed the Council of Ephesus in 431, which deposed Nestorius.  Cyril died in 444.

            St. Patrick was born during this year in Roman Britain now known as Great Britain.  He was a fifth-century Romano-British Christian missionary and bishop in Ireland.  The details of Patrick's life are disputed and over laid with many pious legends.  Legends say the St. Patrick banished all snakes from Ireland but the absence of snakes has been noted from as early as the thrird century.  The small amount of definite information about his is found in his two writings: The Confession and A Letter to the Soldiers of Coroticus, a chief in north Britain.  He died on March 17, 461 in what is now Northern Ireland.

           Nestorius the Archbishop of Constantinople was born in this year in Kahramanmaras, Turkey  He served as Archbishop of Constantinople from 10 April, 428 to August 431.  He was a Christian theologian, several of his teachings in the fields of Christology and Mariology were seen as controversial and caused major disputes. He died in 451 in Karga, Egyptor Upper Egypt.</p>

            The Chora Church or as originally called the "Church of the Holy Saviour Outside the Walls."  It was called by this name since it was built outside the city now known as Istanbul in the 4th century as part of a monastery complex by Constantine the Great.  It later was enclosed with in the walls of Constantinople, by Emperor Theodosius II in this year.  It was a mosque for many years but today it is a museum (Kariye Musesi) and most of the frescos and mosaics are fully and beautifully restored.  The church has been turned back into a Mosque in August, 2020 by President of Turkey, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan

            The Council of Ephesus was a council of Christian bishops who convened in Ephesus, Turkey by the Roman Emperor Theodosius II.  This was the third ecumenical council, an effort to attain consensus in the church though a assembly representing all of Christendom.  This council took place in June and July at the Church of Mary in Ephesus in Anatolia.

            The Council of Chalcedon.  The Council marked the end of Arianism within the Empire.  Unlike the other three early ecumenical councils, it was not followed by decades of doctrinal strife.  Theodosius had proved the man for the moment.  But in matters of church order, peace was more elusive.

            Anicius Manlius Torquatus Severinus Boethius or commonly know as Boethius was born in Rome.  He is ranked among the founders of the Middle Ages because of his great influence on medieval education and thought.  He was a statesman and philosopher. He served the roman king of Ostrogoths (a Roman-era Germanic people) in Italy, Theodoric the Great.  Near the end of his life he was accused of treason against Theodoric, put in prison and eventually executed in 524.  He died at the age of 44.  While in prison he wrote his Consolation of Philosophy.

            Columba was born on December 7, of this year in Gartan (a parish in County Donegal, Ireland.).  He was an Irish abbot and missionary evangelist credited with spreading Christianity in what is today Scotland at the start of the Hibemo-Scottish mission.  He founded the abbey on Iona, which became a dominant religious and political institution in the region for centuries.  He is the patron saint of Derry, Northern Ireland.  Columba died on June 8, 597 in Iona, United Kingdom.

            Construction started on the Hagia Sophia in what is now known as Istanbul, Turkey.  From the date of its dedication in 360 until 1453, it served as a cathedral of Constantinople, except between 1204 and 1261, when it was the cathedral of the Latin Empire.  The building was converted to a mosque from May 29, 1453 until 1934, when it was secularized.  It was opened as a museum on February 1, 1935.  It has since turned back into a mosque.

         November 20, The Madaba Map was dedicated on this date in the church of St. George in Madaba, Jordan.  

            This year The Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, Israel/Palestine as it stands today was constructed.  The first basilica on the site was begun by Saint Helena, the mother of the Emperor Constantine I.  Under the supervision of Bishop Makorios of Jerusalem, construction started in 327  and was completed in 333.  That structure was burnt down in the Samaritan Revolt of 529.  The current basilica was rebuilt in its present form in this year by the Emperor Justinian I.  The Grotto of the Nativity, an underground cave located beneath the basilica, enshrines the site where Jesus is said to have been born.  The exact spot is marked beneath an altar by a 14-pointed silver star set into the marble floor and surrounded by silver lamps. 

The Prophet Muhammad was born in the Arabian city of Mecca sometime during this year.  He died on Monday, June 8, 632, in the city of Medina, which is in the country now known now as Saudi Arabia at the age of 63.  

Islam holds that the Qur'an was revealed from Allah to Muhammad orally through the angel Jubril (Gabriel) over a period of approximately twenty-three years, beginning in this year, when Muhammad was forty and concluding in 632 AD, the year of his death.  The Qur'an is the central religious text of Islam, also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, Our'ān, Coran or al-Qur'ān.  Muslims believe the Qur'an to be the verbal book of divine guidance and direction for mankind.  Muslims also consider the original Arabic verbal text to be the final revelation of God.

970 circa
Leif Erikson was born most likely in Iceland sometime during the year.  He was the son of Icelandic mother and Norse father. Erik the Red, an explorer and outlaw from Western Norway. He was an Icelandic explorer and regarded as the first European to land in North America nearly 500 years before Christopher Columbus. He died most likely in Greenland about the year 1020.

Bede was born during this year.  Saint Bede was the most talented historian of the early Middle Ages, spent almost his entire life in the monasteries of Wearmouth and Jarrow in the north of England where, by the eighth century, a vigorous Anglo-Saxon culture was flowering.  He died in 735.    

            The construction of the Dome of the Rock was completed on the Temple Mount in the old city of Jerusalem.  When it was built, it was intended that the building serve as a shrine for pilgrims and not as a mosque for public worship, which is what it is used for today.  Non - Muslims are not permitted in the building today.

            Oxford University was founded. The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation 

1140 circa
            Peter Waldo was born during this time.  He is regarded as the founder of the Waldensians sometime between 1170 and 1177.  Waldo died sometime near 1205.  He was aged 64-65.

            The Crusaders built the Church of St. Anne in what is now the Muslim Quarter in the city of Jerusalem, Israel.  It supposedly marks the place where the Virgin Mary's parents lived.  The Catholic cloister that surrounds the Church of St. Anne and the Pool of Bethesda offers many refreshing delights to the weary traveler.  The cool shade of the pepper trees provides shelter from the scorching sun.  Birds send their love songs airmail across the flowered courtyard.  The joyful strains of happy pilgrims testing St. Anne's acoustics float outward and upward over the stone pavement and ancient pools.  Sit inside the church and listen and take-in the sounds of groups lifting their voices in praise to our Lord through song.


1150 circa
Stephen Langton was born in and about this year.  Langton is believed to be the one who divided the Bible into the standard modern arrangement of chapters and it is Langton's arrangement of the chapters that remains in use today.  Stephen was a Roman Catholic and was chosen and consecrated by the Pope at Viterbo on June 17, 1207 to be the Archbishopric of Canterbury.  He died on July 9, 1228 in Slindon, Sussex, England.  He is buried in Canterbury Cathedral.

John Wycliffe was born sometime during this year.  He was an English theologian, lay preacher, translator, reformist and university teacher who was known as an earlier dissident in the Roman Catholic Church during the 14th century.  Wycliffe was also an early advocate for translation of the Bible into the common tongue.  He completed his translation directly from the Vulgate into Vernacular English in the year 1382, now known as Wycliff's Bible.  It is probable that he personally translated the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John; and it is possible he translated the entire New Testament, while his associates translated the Old Testament.  Wycliff's Bible appears to have been completed by1834, with additional updated versions being done by Wycliffe's assistant John Purvey and other in 1388 and 1395.   He died on December 31, 1384.

Jan Hus was born in this year.  No specific day is mentioned.    He was considered the first Church reformer, as he lived before Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli.  He was a Czech Theologian, Roman Catholic Priest, philosopher, master, dean and rector of Charles University in Prague.  After being executed, the followers of his religious teaching (known as Hussites) rebelled against their Roman Catholic rulers and defeated five consecutive papal crusades between 1420 and 1431 in what became known as "The Hussite Wars."   He died on July 6, 1415 after being "burnt at the stake." 

            The Great Wall of China as we see it today was mostly built during the Ming Dynasty.  The Great Wall was originally built in the Spring and Autumn, and Waring States Periods as a defensive fortification by the three states: Yan, Zhao, and Qin.  It went through constant extensions and repairs in later dynasties.  It began as independent walls for different states when it was first built, and did not become the "Great" wall until the Qin Dynasty. 
             The Great Wall, one of the greatest wonders of the world, was listed as a World Heritage by UNESCO in 1987.  Just like a  gigantic dragon, it winds up and down across deserts, grasslands, mountain, and plateaus, stretching approximately 13,170 miles (21,196 kilometers) from east to west of China.  See 220BC                                 

            Jan Hus  begins preaching Wycliffite ideas in Bohemia.
            The world's first quarantine station is built in Venice, Italy to quarantine against the Black Death.

            Construction of the Forbidden City begins in Beijing during the Chinese Ming Dynasty.

            The Island of Gotland passes under Danish rule.  Gotland is in located in the Baltic Sea 55.9 miles east of Sweden and Southeast of Stockholm.  It is a beautiful medieval place especially the walled capitol city of Visby. 

Jan Hus is excommunicated by the Archbishop of Prague. 

January 6, Joan of Arc, French soldier and saint was born.  She died on May 30, 1431.

November 16, The Council of Constance begins.

June 5, The Council of Constance condemns the writings of John Wycliff and asks Jan Hus to recant in public his heresy; after his denial, he is tried for heresy, excommunicated , then sentenced to be burned at the stake.
            July 6, Jan Hus is burned at the stake in Konstanz.  Some say he was the forerunner of Martin Luther.

         May 30, The Catholic Church burns Jerome of Prague as a heretic.

The use of street lighting is first recorded in London, when Sir Henry Barton, the mayor, orders lanterns with lights to be hung out on the winter evenings between Hallowtide and Candlemas.

The Council of Constance ends.

May 30, Nineteen-year-old Joan of Arc is burned at the stake at Rouen, France.

Johannes Gutenberg began building his printing press.  He was German, his press was wooden, and the most important aspect of his invention was that it was the first form of printing to use movable type.

Leonardo da Vinci was born in Florence, Italy in the Tuscan hill town of Vinci.  He was an Italian painter and scholar whose most famous religious works of art are; Virgin of the Rocks, The Last Supper, and St. John the Baptist.  He died on May 2, 1519 at the age of 67 in Amboise, Kingdom of France.

The Gutenberg Bible was published in Mainz, Germany.  It was also known as the 42 Line Bible.  It is considered to have been the first substantial publication in the Christian world, and took Johannes Gutenberg  two years to complete.

May 21,  Albrecht Dürer was born.  He was a German painter, printmaker, engraver, mathematician, and theorist from Nuremberg, Germany.  His prints established his reputation across Europe when he was still in his twenties, and he has been conventionally regarded as the greatest artist of the Northern Renaissance ever since.  His vast body of work includes altarpieces and religious works, numerous portraits and self-portraits and copper engravings. The print or sculpture we are most familiar with now days is "The Praying Hands."  Read the story of how the famous picture came to be.  Albrecht died on April 6, 1528.

The Sistine Chapel was completed in Rome.

         November 10, Martin Luther was born in Eisleben, Germany.  He was a German monk, priest, professor of theology and iconic figure of the Protestant Reformation.  He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punishment for sin could be purchased with money.  Luther taught that salvation is not earned by good deeds but received only as a free gift of God's grace through faith in Jesus Christ as redeemer from sin.  His theology challenged the authority of Pope of the Roman Catholic Church by teaching that the Bible is the only source of divinely revealed knowledge.  He died on February 18, 1546 at the age of 62.

          October 12, Christopher Columbus discovered the New World; he sailed from Spain and landed in the Bahamas on San Salvador or Wattling's Island.  Read excerpts from his journal.
            William Tyndale was born sometime during this year.  He was a 16th-century Protestant reformer and scholar who, influenced by the work of Desiderius Erasmus and Martin Luther, translated considerable parts of the Bible into the Early Modern English of his day.  Tyndale was strangled to death while tied at the stake, and then his dead body was burned.  His final words, spoken "at the stake with a fervent zeal, and a loud voice," were reported as "Lord! Open the King of England's eyes." He died on October 6, 1536.

            February 16,  Philipp Melanchthon was born.  He was a German reformer, collaborator with Martin Luther, the first systematic theologian of the Protestant Reformation, intellectual leader of the Lutheran Reformation, and an influential designer of educational systems.  He stands next to Luther and Calvin as a reformer, theologian, and molder of Protestantism.   He died on April 19, 1560.
            June 24, John Cabot was an Italian navigator and explorer whose discovery of parts of North America under the commission of Henry VII of England is commonly held to have been the first European encounter with the mainland of North America since the Norse Vikings visits of Vinland in the eleventh century.  The official position of the Canadian and United Kingdom government is that he landed on the island of Newfoundland

Felix Mantz was born sometime during this year.  He was a co-founder of the original Swiss Brethren Anabaptist congregation in Zurich, Switzerland, and the first martyr of the Radical Reformation.  He died on January 5, 1527, being executed by drowning in Lake Zurich on the Limmat.  He was sentenced to death for teaching baptism by emersion.

         Michelangelo started painting the Sistine Chapel Ceiling.

July 10, John Calvin was born.  He was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation.  He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism.  He died on May 27, 1564.          

Juan Ponce de Leon landed in Florida. 
            Vascode Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean.

         John Knox was born in this year in Haddington, United Kingdom..  He was a Scottish clergyman, writer and leader of the Protestant Reformation who is considered the founder of the Presbyterian denomination in Scotland.  He died on November 24, 1572 in Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

        John Foxe was born in Boston in Lincolnshire, England.  He died in England on April 18, 1587.   See 1563 He was a Protestant writer, whose popular book Foxes Book of Martyrs recounted the heroism and sufferings of many early Protestants.

Giovanni da Verrazano explored America's northeast coast.  

            February 4, Ludwig Heltzer, was beheaded at Kanstanz for holding Baptist views. (From the notes of H. Hallgren)

Grace O'Malley was Ireland's pirate queen.  Grace was born about this year in County Mayo on the west coast of Ireland  She was the daughter of a chieftain, Owen O'Malley, and his wife Margaret.  She grew up inheriting her father's taste for the seafaring life and eventually took command of his fleet of galleys and their hard-bitten, all-male crews.  For fifty years she traded the clan's produce in Ireland, Scotland, and Spain, skillfully practiced the time-honored craft of piracy and plundering, and led rebellions against the invading English.

            For more than 270 years --- from 1558 to 1829 --- Roman Catholics in England were not able to practice their faith openly so they had to find alternative ways to express their beliefs - underground.  The song "The Twelve Days of Christmas" is one example of how they did it.

         October 10, Jacobus Arminius was born in Oudewater, Netherlands.  Jacobus Arminius was the Latinized name of the Dutch theologian Jakob Hermanszoon from the Protestant Reformation period.  He died on October 19, 1609, in Leiden, Netherlands

March 20, John Foxe' book, "Fox's Book of Martyrs" was published in English by John Day.  The book is a celebrated work of church history and martyr logy.  It contained about 1800 pages and was first known as Acts and Monuments.  John Fox (or Foxe) was born in Boston, in Lincolnshire, in 1517

            September 8, The first permanent European settlement in the present U.S. was founded at St. Augustine, Florida.

January 22, John Donne was born in London, England.  He was an English poet, scholar, soldier and secretary born into a recusant (a person who refuses to submit to authority) family, who later became a cleric in the Church of England.  Under royal patronage, he was made Dean of St Paul's Cathedral in London .(1621–1631).He died on March 31, 1631 in London England.

            The first English colony in America was settled on Roanoke Island, but it survived only ten months. Roanoke is an island off the coast of North Carolina.  It is part of Dare County
            Between 1585 to 1590 English settlers make two unsuccessful attempts to establish a colony on Roanoke Island in what is now North Carolina. The second group of settlers, later known as the Lost Colony, disappear during a long period without contact with England. Their fate is unknown.

April 18,  John Foxe died on this date in London, England.  He was born at Boston in Lincolnshire county, England in 1516.  The work for which he was famous , Book of Martyrs, was first published in English in 1563 under the title, Acts and Monuments of These Latter and Perillour Dayes, but it be came known almost immediately as the Book of Martyrs.
         August 18, The first English child, Virginia Dare was born on the continent at the second Roanoke settlement--the "Lost Colony."

         Pocahontas was born sometime this year.  She was noted for her association with the colonial settlement.  She was a Virginia Indian notable for her association with the settlement at Jamestown, Virginia.  She was the daughter of Chief Powhatan, the head of a network of tributary tribal nations in the Tidewater region of Virginia.  In a well-known historical anecdote, she is said to have saved the life of an Indian captive, Englishman John Smith, in 1607 by placing her head upon his own when her father raised his war club to execute him.  Pocahontas was captured by the English during Anglo-Indian hostilities in 1613, and held for ransom.  During her captivity, she converted to Christianity and took the name Rebecca.  When the opportunity arose for her to return to her people, she chose to remain in with the English.  In April 1614, she married tobacco planter John Rolfe.  In January 1615, she bore him a son, Thomas Rolfe.  They traveled to England where on March 21, 1617 she died.  Lady Rebecca Rolfe was buried under the chancel of St. Georges Church in Gravesend on March 21, 1617.

         December 21, Roger Williams was born in Cowley, Middlesex, England.  On February 5, 1631, Roger and Mary Williams arrived at Boston. He was an English theologian and leading American colonist, an early and courageous proponent of the separation of church and state, an advocate for fair dealings with Native Americans, founder of the city of Providence, Rhode Island, and co-founder of the colony of Rhode Island.  He was also one of the founders of Baptist church in America. He died on April 19, 1683, at the age of 79 in Providence.
         January,   King James I of England convened the Hampton Court Conference where a new English version of the Bible was conceived in response to the perceived problems of the earlier translations as detected by the Puritans, a faction within the Church of England. 

May 13, Jamestown, Virginia became the first permanent English settlement.

         John Milton was born on December 9, on Bread Street, London, United Kingdom.. He was an English poet and intellectual who served as a civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and later under Oliver Cromwell.   He wrote at a time of religious and political instability, and is best known for his epic poem Paradise Lost.  He died on November 8, 1604

            Henry Hudson sailed the Half Moon up the Hudson River looking for "The Northwest Passage."
            Construction started on the Blue Mosque in what is now known as Istanbul, Turkey.  The mosque is named Blue for the twenty thousand blue Iznik tiles adorning the walls of its interior.  Construction was completed in 1616.

            April 11, Edward Wightman,  English Baptist was burned at the stake in Litchfield, England.
            The Authorized King James Version of the Bible was completed.  

         The Thirty Years War started in Germany.  It lasted until 1648.  It was one of the most destructive conflicts in European history.  

July 30, America's first legislative body, the Virginia House of Burgesses, convened in Jamestown, Virginia.
            The first black slaves in America, arrived on a Dutch ship in Jamestown.

            September 6/16,  The Mayflower set sail from Mayflower Steps in Plymouth, England with 102 pilgrims on board..
            November 10/20,  Land was sighted from the Mayflower.  It was confirmed to be Cape Cod.
            November 11/21,  The Pilgrims signed the Mayflower Compact in Provincetown harbor.
            December 26, The Pilgrims who were on the Mayflower landed at Plymouth, Massachusetts.  During the first winter, 47% of them died.
            This year marks the start of the "Great Migration".  The term Great Migration usually refers to the migration in this period of English settlers, primarily Puritans to Massachusetts and the warm islands of the West Indies, especially the sugar rich island of Barbados, 1630-40.  They came in family groups, rather than as isolated individuals and were motivated chiefly by a quest for freedom to practice their Puritan religion.   

            June 21, twenty-seven protestant leaders were executed in the Old Town Square in Prague by order of the Catholic Emperor Ferdinand.
            October,  The first recorded Thanksgiving celebration.

            July, The Pilgrims met together to celebrate the first proclamation of Thanksgiving. 

         The Dutch created the first European settlements when they settled in the States of Connecticut, Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania and formed the Dutch colony of New Netherland, or Nieuw Nederlandt See Website  for detailed facts on those early days.

The Indians (Native American Lenape people) sell "Manhattes" Island to the Dutch for merchandise worth about $24.

November 18, St. Peters Basilica was completed in Rome
            November 28,  John Bunyan was born in Easton, near Bedford, England.  He was an English Christian writer and preacher who is famous for the writing "The Pilgrim's Progress."  Though he was a Reformed Baptist, he is remembered in the Church of England.  He died on August 31, 1688.

March,  The Massachusetts Bay Colony received its charter from King Charles of England superseding the land grant and establishing a legal basis for the English Colony at Massachusetts.

         A King James Version of the Bible published in England became known as the "Wicked Bible."  The Wicked Bible, sometimes called the Adulterous Bible or The Sinner's Bible is a term referring to the Bible published in 1631 by Robert Barker and Martin Lucas, the royal printers in London, which was meant to be a reprint of the King James Bible.  The name is derived from the compositors' mistake: in the Ten Commandments of the word not in the sentence Thou shalt not commit adultery was omitted. 

         Tulip bulbs were used as a form of currency in Holland. (
            The first decennial performance of the Oberammergau Passion Plays is held.

Phillip Spener was born in Alsace, France.  He was educated in Strasburg.  He completed his doctoral dissertation and was prepared to teach, but instead served as a pastor in Frankfurt.  He had completed his doctoral dissertation and was prepared to teach, but instead served as a pastor in Frankfurt.  the deadness and moral laxity of the congregation moved him to offer a specific program for change, spelled out in Pia Desideria, or "Pior Desires," first published in 1675,  This controversial writing marks the birth of Pietism as a renewal movement within Lutheranism and beyond it.  Phillip Spener died in 1705.

Roger Williams was an American Protestant theologian, and the first American proponent of religious freedom and the separation of church and state.  He founded Providence, Rhode Island,  to provide religious freedom to all.  He was born around 1603 and died sometime between January 28 and March 15, 1863.
October 28, Harvard College, the colonies' first institution of higher education was founded on this date by the state of Massachusetts.

January 14, The constitution of the state of Connecticut was the first constitution written in America.  The committee framing the orders was charged to make the law as as near to the law of God as they can be.
            1st Baptist Church in America at Providence, Rhode Island was organized.  The meetinghouse of the nation's oldest Baptist congregation, founded by Roger Williams in 1638. The structure was dedicated in 1775 and designed by Joseph Brown. The church has a carved wood interior and a Waterford crystal chandelier. Built by ships' carpenters in 1775, it survived the gale of 1875 and the hurricane of 1938.  The church congregation met in a grove of trees or in people's homes until 1775 when the church was dedicated. 

            The Whole Book of Psalmes, was the first book printed in the colonies.  It was a hymnal known as the Bay Psalm Book.  Only the words were printed because they assumed everybody new the music.

October 14,  William Penn was born in London, England.  He was an English real estate entrepreneur, philosopher, and founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, the English North American colony and future Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.  He was an early champion of democracy and religious freedom, notable for his good relations and successful treaties with the Lenape Indians.  Under his direction, the city of Philadelphia was planned and developed.  He died on July 30, 1718 at the age of 74.
            November 13, law adopted by Massachusetts Bay banishing all Baptists.
            The second Baptist Church in America at Newport, RI organized by John Clark.

          John Bunyan was baptized at 25 years of age.

         Read some condensed history of the Anabaptist.  This was the first year, as known, the word Baptist was used in English Literature.f

December 1, The British Parliament passed the first Navigation Act of regulate colonial trade.  This particular Navigation Act added a twist to Oliver Cromwell's act; ship's crews had to be three-quarters English, and "enumerated" products not produced bh the mother country, such as tobacco, cotton, and sugar were to be shipped from the colonies onlyy to England or other English colonies.

December 17, Samuel Wesley was born.  He was a clergyman of the Church of England, as well as a poet and writer of controversial prose.  He was also the father of John Wesley and Charles Wesley, founders of Methodism.  He died on April 5, 1735.

            September, New Amsterdam was captured by English and the name was changed to New York.  The English also captured the Dutch colonies of New NetherlandFort Orange was renamed Fort Albany and paved the way for the naming of the city of Albany.

June 7, The First Baptist Church of Boston was organized by two women and seven men based on their strong commitment as disciples of Jesus Christ and their determination to worship God with freedom of conscience.  the organized this church, the third church of any kind to be founded in Boston and the fifth Baptist church in all America.  The first pastor, Thomas Gould, and three others were baptized on that day, the other having been baptized in England.
    The church was formed in defiance of two laws, passed by the General Court:  (1) That all persons wishing to form churches must first obtain consent of the :magistrates and elders of the greater part of the churches within this jurisdiction,"  (2) That "if any person or persons within this jurisdiction shall condemn or opposed the baptizing of infants... such person or persons shall be subject to banishment." 

         January 20, Susanna Wesley was born in London, United Kingdom.  She was the mother of Samuel, John and Charles Wesley.  She died on July 23, 1742 London, England.

             In this year Thomas Ken wrote a book entitled, "A Manual of Prayers,"  for the use of the scholars of Winchester College.  In one of the editions of this manual, Ken included three of his hymns that he wanted the students to sing each day as part of their devotion.  These hymns we called "Morning Hymn," Evening Hymn," and "Midnight Hymn."  Each of these hymns closed with the familiar four lines we now know as The Doxology.

July 17, Isaac Watts was born on this day.  He is recognized as the "Father of English Hymnody," as he was the first prolific and popular English hymn-writer, credited with some 750 hymns.    Many of his hymns remain in active use today and have been translated into many languages.  Three of the ones he wrote the words for are, "Joy to the World," "Jesus Shall Reign," and "Oh God, Our Help In Ages Past."  He died on November 25, 1748.

September 19, Nathaniel Bacon led rebellious Virginians against the Colony's royal government.  Bacon's death on October 26, from dysentery, led to the collapse of the rebellion.

         William Penn framed the first charter separating church and state for the Quaker Colony of West Jersey.

February 28, King Charles II of England, granted to William Penn a proprietary charter for a colony and named it Pennsylvania to honor Penn's father.  Charles II granted a land charter to William Penn to repay a debt of €16,000 or around € 2,100,000 in 2008, adjusting for retail inflation) owed to William's father Admiral Penn.  This was one of the largest land grants to an individual in history.  It was called Pennsylvania, meaning "Penn's Woods", in honor of Admiral Penn.  William Penn, who had wanted his province to be named "Sylvania", was embarrassed at the change, fearing that people world think he had named it after himself, but King Charles would not rename the grant.  Penn established a government with two innovations that were much copied in the New World: the county commission and freedom of religious conviction.  

June 21, King Charles II revoked the Massachusetts Bay Colony charter.  1689

February 23, George Frideric Handel was born on this day.  He was a German-English Baroque composer who is famous for his operas, oratorios, and concertos.  Handel was born in Germany in the same year as JS Bach and Domenico Scarlatti.  His works include Messiah, Water Music, and Music for the Royal Fireworks.  George Handel died on April 14, 1759.
            March 31, Johann Sebastian Bach was born in Eisenach, the capital of the duchy of Saxe-Eisenach, in the Thuringian region of the Holy Roman Empire.  He was a famous German composer, and considered the "master of masters' because of his inspiring musical compositions.  All of his uncles were professional musicians,  His father probable taught his to play the violin and harpsicord, and his brother, Johann Christiph Bach, taught his the clavichord and exposed him to much contemporary musicBach composed a cantata which expressed the fervency of his faith in Christ's atoning work on the cross entitled"  Jesus, Meine Freude.  (Jesus, My Joy!"   Bach's health and vision declined in 1749, and he died on July 28, 1750 in Leipzig, Saxony, Germany.

         August 31, John Bunyan died in London. He was an English Christian writer and preacher, famous for writing The Pilgrim's Progress.  He was a Reformed Baptist, in the Church of England.

April 18, Sir Edmund Andros, governor of the Dominion of New England, was deposed during England's "Glorious Revolution"; the Massachusetts Bay Colony regained its charter two years later.  1684

            September 25, first newspaper printed in America, was sold in Boston.  It was a 71/4" X 111/2", four page journal with one blank page where you could write in your own news.  It was printed by Benjamin Harris.  The paper lasted only one issue before being suppressed.

February, The Salem witch hunts began.  Before they ended in May of 1693, 14 women and 6 men were executed; 150 were imprisoned.

June 28,  John Wesley older brother of Charles Wesley was born.  He was a Church of England cleric and Christian theologian.  John is largely credited, along with his brother Charles, as founding the Methodist movement, which began when he took to open-air preaching in a similar manner to George Whitefield.  In contrast to George Whitefield's Calvinism, Wesley embraced the Arminian doctrines that were dominant in the 18th-century Church of England.  Methodism in both forms was a highly successful evangelical movement in the United Kingdom, which encouraged people to experience Jesus Christ personally.  He encouraged people to meet and worship in small groups rather than worship in the authorized church building.  He died March 2, 1791 at the age of 87, in London, England..
            October 5  Jonathan Edwards was born in East Windsor, Connecticut Colony.  He was a Christian preacher, philosopher, and theologian.  Edwards "is widely acknowledged to be America's most important and original philosophical theologian." and one of America's greatest intellectuals.

         August 1-3,  An Anglo-Dutch force captured Gibraltar during the War of the Spanish Succession.

December 18, Charles Wesley was born on this day.  Mr. Wesley is chiefly remembered for the many hymns he wrote.  He founded Wesley Chapel in the village of Brayton, North Yorkshire, England.  His house, located near by, can still be visited today.  Some of the hymns he wrote words for are, "Christ the Lord is Risen Today," "Love Divine, All Loves Excelling," and "Oh for a Thousand Tongues to Sing."  He died on March 29, 1788.
         "When I Survey the Wondrus Cross," was written by Issac Watts.  Mr. Watts wrote 696 English hymns during his lifetime.

            June, The Carolina Colony was divided into the providences of North Carolina and South Carolina.

            December 16,  George Whitefield was born.  He was an English Anglican priest who helped spread the Great Awakening in Britain, and especially in the British North American colonies.  He was one of the founders of Methodism and of the evangelical movement generally.  He became perhaps the best-known preacher in Britain and America in the 18th century, and because he traveled through all of the American colonies and drew great crowds and media coverage, he was one of the most widely recognized public figures in colonial America.  He died Whitefield died in the parsonage of Old South Presbyterian Church, Newburyport, Massachusetts, on September 30, 1770, and was buried, according to his wishes, in a crypt under the pulpit of this church.

Sybilla Righton Masters was an American inventor.  Mrs. Masters was the first person residing in the American colonies to be given an English patent, and possibly the first known inverter of her gender in America.  Mrs. Masters was given a patent for a corn mill in her husbands name, as women were not allowed to have their own patents in that time and place.  She also patented a process for making hats.

David B. Brainerd was a missionary to the American Indians in New York, New Jersey, and eastern Pennsylvania.  He was born in Connecticut, he died of tuberculosis an the age of twenty-nine in 1747.
            Ice cream recipes first appear in 18th-century England and America.  A recipe for ice cream was published in Mrs. Mary Eales's Receipts in London in this year.

            Issac Watts wrote "Jesus Shall Reign".  Issac was born on July 17, 1674 and died on November 25, 1748 and is recognized as the Father of "English Hymnody", as he was the first prolific and popular English Hymn writer, credited with some 750 Hymns.  Many of his hymns remain in active use today and have been translated into many languages.
            Watts also wrote "Joy to the World" in this year.  He had written his first hymn in 1692 at the age of 18 as a protest against what he thought was the low quality of songs in Anglican hymnals.
           Though the triumphant words "Joy to the World" exemplify the Christmas feeling, this familiar text is actually a translation based on five verses from Psalm 98 in the Old Testament.

            The Old North Church in Boston was built.  A signal by Paul Revere from the lanterns hung in the belfry. "One if by land, two if by sea."

July 24, John Newton was born on this day in Wapping, London.  John was an English Anglican clergyman and former slave-ship captain.  He sailed back to England in 1748, aboard the merchant ship Greyhound, which was carrying beeswax and dyer's wood, now referred to as camwood.  During this voyage, he experienced a spiritual conversion.  The ship encountered a severe storm off the coast of Donegal, Ireland and almost sank.  John  awoke in the middle of the night and finally called out to God as the ship filled with water.  After he called out, the cargo came out and stopped up the hole, and the ship was able to drift to safety.  It was this experience which he later marked as the beginnings of his conversion to evangelical Christianity.  As the ship sailed home, Newton began to read the Bible and other religious literature.  By the time he reached Britain, he had accepted the Lord as his personal savior. After he became a minister, hymn-writer, and later a prominent supporter of the abolition of slavery. He was the author of at least 289 hymns, including "Amazing Grace."   He died on December 21, 1807 at the age of 82 in London, England.
            September 8, Arthur Guinness was born in  Celbridge, County Kildare, Ireland.  He was an Irish brewer and founder of the Guiness brewery business and family.  In 1761 he married Olivia Whitmore in St. Mary's Church, Dublin and they had 21 children, 10 of whom lived to adulthood.  He died on January 23, 1803 at the age of 78 in Dublin, Ireland.

November 26, William Cowper was born in Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, England on this day.  His last name is pronounced Cooper.   He wrote among other hymns, "There is a Fountain Filled With Blood."  He died on April 25, 1800.

February 22, George Washington was born.  He became the first President of the United States.  He died on December 1, 1799.
June 9, General James Edward Oglethorpe received a charter for the colony of Georgia.  As a social reformer in Britain, he hoped to resettle Britain's poor, especially those in debtors' prison, in the New World.

         Robert Aitken was born during this year.  He was a Philadelphia printer and the first to publish an English language Bible in the newly formed United States.  He was born in Dalkeith, Scotland.  He died in Philadelphia in 1802.

October 30,  John Adams the 2nd president of the United States was born in Braintree, Massachusetts.  He died on July 4, 1826 at the age of 90 in Quincy, Massachusetts.
A New York City newspaper, New York Weekly Journal publisher John Peter Zenger was acquitted of seditious libel, a landmark decision for freedom of the press.  On Sunday, November 17, 1734 Zenger was arrested and charged with seditious libel.  After more than eight months in prison, Zenger went to trial defended by illustrious Philadelphia lawyer Andrew Hamilton.

         May 29, Patrick Henry was born in Hanover County, Colony of Virginia, British America.  He was an American attorney, planter, and politician who became know as an orator during the movement for independence in Virginia in the 1770's.  A Founding Father, he served as the first and sixth post-colonial Governor of Virginia, from 1776 to 1779 and from 1784 to 1786.  He died in Brookneal, Virginia U.S. at the age of 63.    

December 26, Thomas Nelson Jr. was born on this day.    He was an American planter, soldier, and statesman from Yorktown, Virginia.  He represented Virginia in the Continental Congress and was its Governor in 1781.  He is regarded as one of the U.S. Founding Fathers since he signed the Declaration of Independence as a member of the Virginia delegation.  He died on January 4, 1789.

Charles Wesley wrote and published the Christmas Hymn, "Hark, the Herald Angles Sing".  In 1753 George Whitfield changed some of the words to read, as we know the hymn today.

         April 7, Haym Salomon was born in Leszmo, Poland.  He was a Polish-born American Jewish businessman and political financial broker who immigrated to New York from Poland during the period of the American Revolution.  He helped convert the French loans into ready cash by selling bills of exchange for Robert Morris, the Superintendent of Finance.  In this way he aided the Continental Army and was possibly the prime financier of the American side during the American Revolutionary War against Great Britain.  He died on January 6, in Philadelphia, U.S.  

          July 15, Vitus Bering and Aleksei Chirikov Expedition discovers the Aleutian Islands, Alaska.  They were the first explorers from Asia to land on North America.

            April 13, Handel's Messiah premiered in Dublin, Ireland.  Messiah is an English oratorio composed by George Frideric Handel, and is on of the most popular works in the Western choral literature.  The Messiah sing-along now common at Christmas often consist of only the first of the oratorio's three parts, with the Hallelujah Chorus (originally concluding the second part) replacing His Yoke is Easy in the first part.

November 22, Abigail Adams was born in Weymouth, Province of Massachusetts Bay, British America.  She was the wife of John Adams and the mother of John Quincy Adams and was the second first lady of the United States, although these titles were not used at the time..  She died October 28, 1818 at the age of 73 in Quincy, Massachusetts, US.  She is buried in the United First Parish Church, Quincy, Massachusetts.  On June 18, 1775, in the midst of the conflict with Britain, Abigail Adams wrote to her husband, John:
               "The race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong; but the God of Israel is He that giveth strength and power unto His people.  Trust in Him at all times, ye people, pour out your hearts before Him; God is a refuge for us."                           The quote for Abigail Adams was copied form the book, America's God and Country Encyclopedia of Quotations, pg 2.

August 20, Francis Asbury was born in Handsworth, West Midlands, United Kingdom.  He was one of the first two bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States.  He died on March 31, 1816.

May 19, King George II granted a charter to the Ohio Company.  The Ohio Company, formally known as the Ohio Company of Virginia, was a land speculation company organized for the colonization of the Ohio Country.  The activities of the company helped to provoke the outbreak of the French and Indian War.  

            It was about this year that John Newton wrote "Amazing Grace."  Click here to read the history of  one of life's greatest hymns.
           The rapidly growing population of Britain's North American colonies now numbers one million, while approximately six million people live in England and Wales.

January 1, Betsy Ross of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was born on this day.  She has been widely credited with making the first American flag.  She died on January 30, 1836.  Read the Betsy Ross flag story.
Katharina A. von Schlegel wrote the words to, "Be still My Soul."  See 1899

October 31, Virginia's lieutenant Governor Dinwiddle sent George Washington to the Ohio Territory to demand that the French leave the region.  Dinwiddle learned the French had built Fort Presque Isle near Lake Erie and Fort Le Boeuf, which he saw as threatening Virginia's interests in the Ohio Country.
            The British Museum in London was established.

         July 3, The Battle of Fort Necessity, or the Battle of the Great Meadows took place on this date in what is now the mountaintop hamlet of Farmington in Fayette County, Pennsylvania.  The engagement was one of the first battles of the French and Indian War and George Washington's only military surrender.  The battle, along with the May 28 Battle of Jumonville Glen, contributed to a series of military escalations that resulted in the global Seven Years' War.

August 24, William Wilberforce was born in Kingston upon Hull, United Kingdom.  He was an English politician, philanthropist, and leader of the movement to abolish the slave trade.  He died on July 29, 1833 in London, United Kingdom at the age of 73.  The movie "Amazing Grace" tells the story of Mr. Wilberforce's life.      

         October, George III becomes King of England.
            Adam Clarke was born from 1760 -2762 in the town land of Moybeg Kirley near Tobermore in Northern Ireland,  He was a British Methodist theologian and biblical scholar.  He is chiefly remembered for writing a commentary on the Bible which took him 40 years to complete and which was a primary Methodist theological resource for two centuries.  He died in 1832

William Carey was born August 17.  He was an English Baptist missionary and a Particular Baptist minister, known as the 'father of modern missions."  He was one of the founders of the Baptist Missionary Society.  As a missionary in the Danish colony, Serampore, India, he translated the Bible into Bengali, Sanskrit, and numerous other languages and dialects.  He lived a quiet life until his death in 1834, revising his Bengali Bible, preaching, and teaching students.  The couch on which he died, on June 9, is now housed at Regent's Park College, the Baptist hall of University of Oxford.

         February 10, The Treaty of Paris ends the Seven Years War. A defeated France gives up most of her claims to The North American TerritorySpain ceded Florida to Britain for the return of Cuba.

         April, The British Parliament passes the Sugar Act to raise money through import taxes on the colonies.

March 22, The Stamp Act, which imposed heavy taxes on the Colonies, was passed by Parliament. 
         May, Virginia's House of Burgesses adopts Patrick Henry's Stamp Act Resolves, protesting taxation with out representation.
           August, Angry mobs force stamp distributors to resign.  Many colonists agree not to import British goods.
           October, Colonial delegates to the Congress in New York reject Parliament's right to tax the colonies.

         March, Pressured by British merchants, Parliament repeals the unsuccessful Stamp Act but restates its supreme authority over the colonies by passing the Declaratory Act.

         June, The Townshend Acts impose duties on glass, tea, and other items imported into the colonies.  The colonists again refuse to buy British goods.

Work began on Monticello the home of Thomas Jefferson.

         March 5, British soldiers fire without orders, into an angry Boston crowd, killing five people.  This incident soon becomes known as the Boston Massacre.  It was also known as the Boston riot and was the incident, which helped spark the rebellion in some of the British American colonies, which culminated in the American Revolutionary War.  A heavy British military presence in Boston led to a tense situation that boiled over into incitement of brawls between soldiers and civilians and eventually led to troops discharging their muskets after being attacked by a rioting crowd.
            April, Parliament repeals all the duties except that on tea.

         William Cowper wrote the words to "There is a Fountain".  To hear the melody and read the words.

         January 1, John Newton preaches on 1 Chronicles 17:16, 17 and uses the words he wrote to "Amazing Grace" to accompany the sermon.  See more about Amazing Grace.
           May, The Tea Act gives the British East India Company a monopoly on sales.  In protest, patriots force ships to return to England without unloading their cargoes of tea.
           December 16,  American patriots dressed as Mohawk Indians boarded the vessels of the East Indian Company docked in the Boston harbor and dumped all the tea that was on the three ships into the ocean.  They emptied 342 chests of tea which was valued at more than 10,000 pounds.  This even became known as the "Boston Tea Party."
         March, Parliament closes Boston harbor to all trade as punishment for the Boston Tea Party.
            May, Virginia's House of Burgesses supports Boston by observing a day of fasting and prayer.  Virginia calls for a unified colonial response through a boycott of British goods.
            September 5, Delegates from all the Colonies except Georgia convened for the First Continental Congress.
            September 5, Peyton Randolph was elected 1st President of the Continental Congress.  His term lasted 48 days and ended on October 22.  He was unable to continue his term because of poor health.  He previously served as speaker of the Virginia House of Burgesses.  He was 53 years old.
            October, The First Continental Congress declares that Americans are entitled to the rights of "life, liberty, and property."
            October 22, Henry Middleton from the state of South Carolina was elected 2nd President of the Continental Congress.  Previously he served as Speaker, of South Carolina Commons House of Assembly.  He resigned the Presidency because he was opposed independence from Great Britain.  He served for 5 days.  He was 57 years old.
            November, Yorktown residents stage a southern tea party, boarding the ship Virginia and dumping chests of tea into the York River.

            February, Parliament declares Massachusetts in rebellion.  British General Gage is authorized to use force to control the colony.
            March 23, Patrick Henry gave his "Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death!" speech.
            April 19, The battle of Lexington signaled the start of the American Revolution.  The War for Independence starts.British solders tried to capture a munitions storage at Concord, Massachusetts and were met with resistance from embattled farmers (Minutemen) and fired the shot heard around the world.  This was the start of the Revolutionary WarLord Dunmore, royal governor of Virginia, seizes Virginia's store of gunpowder at Williamsburg, Virginia.
            May 10, The Second Continental Congress began; George Washington is appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental forces.
            May 10,  Peyton Randolph was elected again as 3rd President of the Continental Congress.  He resigned on May 24, after serving 15 days to return to the Virginia House of Burgesses.
            May 24, John Hancock was elected 4th President of the Continental congress.  He served for 890 days.  He was 38 years old at the time.  His term ended on October 29, 1777.  Previously he was the President of Massachusetts Provincial Congress.   See 1785
            June, The British win the battle of Bunker and Breed's Hills in Boston, but they suffer heavy losses. 
            November, Virginia's royal governor issues an emancipation proclamation freeing "all indentured Servants (and) Negroes" who will fight alongside the British.
             John Asplund, the first Swedish Baptist in America.

         January, Thomas Paine's influential pamphlet, "Common Sense" was published.
            May 4, Rhode Island becomes the first American colony to renounce allegiance to King George III of Great Britian.
            May, France secretly begins sending money and supplies to the colonies.
            May, Betsy Ross reports that she sewed the first American flag.
            June 7, Acting under the instruction of the Virginia Convention, Richard Henry Lee introduced a resolution in the Second Continental Congress proposing independence for the colonies.  The Lee Resolution contained three parts: a declaration of independence, a call to form foreign alliances, and "a plan for confederation."
            June 10, Congress appointed a committee of five to draft a statement of independence for the colonies,  The committee included Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Robert R. Livingston, and Roger Sherman, with the actual writing delegated to Jefferson.
            Jefferson drafted the statement between June 11 and 28.  As a scholar well-versed in the ideas and ideals of the French and English Enlightenments, Jefferson found his greatest inspiration in the language and arguments of English philosopher John Locke, who had justified England's "Glorious Revolution" of 1688 on the basis of man's "natural rights."
            July 2, The momentous decision of the Continental Congress to sever its ties to Great Britain came on this date, which is the date that John Adams thought should be celebrated by future generations.   The Declaration of Independence, drafted mostly by Thomas Jefferson, and edited by his colleagues in the Continental Congress, was adopted 2 days later.
            July 4, The Declaration of Independence was adopted by Congress.  The second sentence of the document reads as follows:  We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. This sentence is called one of the best-known sentences in the English Language.
            July 5, Under the supervision to the Jefferson committee, the approved Declaration was printed.
            July 8, The Liberty Bell rings in Philadelphia, for the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence. 
            July 19, Congress ordered that the Declaration be engrossed on parchment with a new title, "the unanimous declaration of the thirteen united states of America," and "that the same, when engrossed, be sighed by every member of Congress."  Engrossing is the process of copying an official document in a large hand.  The engrosser of the Declaration was probably Timothy Matlock, an assistant to Charles Thomson, secretary to the Congress.
            August 2, John Hancock, the President of the Congress signed the engrossed copy with a bold signature.  The other delegates, following custom, signed beginning at the right with signatures arranged by states from northernmost New Hampshire to southernmost Georgia.
       Although all delegates were not present on August 2, fifty-six delegates eventually sighed the document.  Some delegates, including Robert R. Livingston of New York, a member of the drafting committee, never signed the Declaration.

         January, Washington defeats the British at Princeton, New Jersey.  The Continental army goes into winter encampment at Morristown.
            June 14, The Continental Congress passed the Flag Resolution that stated, "Resolved, That the flag of the United States be made of thirteen stripes, alternate red and white; that the union be thirteen stars, white in a blue field, representing a new Constellation."  Some believe the design may have been derived from the flag and jack of the British East India Company.  Although Betsy Ross and others were commissioned to produce flags, there is no evidence that verifies that Ross sewed the first.
            September, The British occupy Philadelphia after winning the Battle of Brandywine Creek.
            October, Washington is defeated at the Battle of Germantown outside Philadelphia.
            October, British general John Burgoyne surrenders his army of 6,000 men at Saratoga, New York, a turning point in the war.
            November 1, The Official First National Thanksgiving Proclamation was delivered by the Continental Congress.
            November 1, Henry Laurens of South Carolina was elected the 5th President of the Continental Congress.  He served for 404 days.  His term ended on December 9, 1778.  Previously he was President of South Carolina Provincial Congress, Vice President, South Carolina.  He was 53 years old at the time.
            November 15, Congress ratitifed the Articles of Confederation.
            Winter, Washington's army winters at Valley Forge.  Severe weather and food shortages cause terrible hardships for the army.
            The constitution of Vermont (then an independent state) was the first to end slavery and enact universal male suffrage.

         February 6,  France pledges financial and military support to the United States in their  independence, in effect declaring war on Great Britain.
            March 17, Captain James Cook arrives on the shore of present-day Oregon while exploring the west coast of America in search of the Northwest Passage.  He records some of the first encounters with Native Americans in this area.  He also touched the coast at Nootka Sound and confirmed the English claim to Oregon.
            June,  The Battle of Monmouth Court House in New Jersey ends in a draw, but the British leave the battlefield.
            December 10, John Jay of the state of New York, was elected 6th President of the Continental Congress.  He served for 293 Days and was 32 years of age at the time.  His term was over on September 28, 1779.  He later became the first Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court and served from 1789 to 1795.

February - The publication of Olney Hymns establishes John Newton's reputation as a hymn-writer.  This publication is the combined work of curate John Newton (1725-1807) and his poet friend, William Cowper (1731-1800).  The hymns were written for the use in Newton's rural parish, which was made up of relatively poor and uneducated followers.
            Fall,  An American expedition burns the villages of Britain's Iroquois allies in New York.  With the war at a stalemate in the north, the British refocus their efforts to the south.
            September 28,  Samuel Huntington from Connecticut was elected 7th
President of the Continental Congress.  He served for 62 days and was 48 years old at the time.  His term was over on July 10, 1781.  He previously served as Associate Judge, on the Connecticut Superior Court.    
            September-October,  A joint French-American attempt to retake Savannah, Georgia, fails with heavy losses.  The French are unwilling to continue the siege leaving many Americans discouraged with the French alliance.

            May, Americans surrender Charleston, South Carolina, the worst defeat of the war.  This defeat begins a period of bloody conflict in the Carolinas between the loyalists and the patriots.
            July, Robert Raikes, organized the first Sunday School in Gloucester, England.  

  January,  Continental infantry and militia defeat the British infantry and cavalry at Cowpens, South Carolina.
            March,  At Guilford Court House, North Carolina, General Nathanael Greene loses to British general Charles Cornwallis.  Cornwallis, however, leaves the Carolinas to join British forces already in Virginia.
            July 10, Thomas McKean of Delaware became the 8th President of the Continental Congress.  He served for 119 days and was 47 years of age.  He terminated his Presidency on November 5, 1781.  He was Chief Justice of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court before serving the Continental Congress.  He was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence.
            August 2,  General Cornwallis makes Yorktown his base operations and fortifies the town.  Most of the townspeople flee before the British arrive.
            August 19,  Washington's and Rochambeau's combined American French army leaves New York for Virginia.  A French fleet heads for the Chesapeake Bay.
            September 5,  In a battle off the Virginia Capes, a French fleet drives off a British force and takes control of the Chesapeake Bay.
            September 26,  The Allied army arrives in Williamsburg, Virginia.
            October 6,  Allied troops dig the first siege line (redoubts, a defended position or a protective barrier, and gun batteries connected by trenches) at Yorktown.  Three days later, they begin bombarding the British defenses.
            October 14,  British redoubts nine and ten are captured during night attacks.  The allies move closer to Yorktown.
            October 16-17,  With supplies running low, General Cornwallis fails to escape across the York River for one reason, because of a storm.  Cornwallis requests a cease-fire to discuss terms for surrender.
            October 19,  General Cornwallis surrenders his army of over 7,000 men to the allied American-French forces ending the British military action and the war.
            November 5,  John Hanson of Maryland was elected to be the 9th President of the Continental Congress.  He served 365 days and was 66 years of age.  He left his office on November 4, 1782.  Before being President he served in the Maryland House of Delegates.

         March,  Lord North resigns as prime minister of Britain.  Great Britain begins peace negotiations with the United States.
            August 7, The original Purple Heart, designated as the Badge of Military Merit , was established by George Washington--then the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army--by order from his Newburgh, New York headquarters.  The Badge of Military Merit was only awarded to three Revolutionary War soldiers by Washington himself.  Washington authorized his subordinate officers to issue Badges of Merit as appropriate. Although never abolished, the award of the badge was not proposed again officially until after World War 1.  
            November 4,  Elias Boudinot of New Jersey was elected to be the 10th President of the Continental Congress.  He served 365 days an reached the age of 42.  He left office on November 3, 1783.  Previously he was Commissary of Prisoners for the Continental Army.  He was born in 1740 and died in 1821.   

  September 3,  The Treaty of Paris signed.  The final treaties between the United States and Great Britain, ending hostilities, are signed in Paris.  In other words the treaty marked the end of the Revolutionary War.
            November 3, Thomas Mifflin of Pennsylvania was elected to be the 11th President of the Continental Congress.  He served 214 days at the age of 39.  He left office on June 3, 1784.  Previously he was a Major General in the Continental Army, and 1st and 3rd Quartermaster General during the American Revolution.  He was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1787.  He also was the first Governor of the state of Pennsylvania.
            December 4,  The last British troops leave the United States.  The withdrawal of the last British troops from Staten Island and Long Island.  This officially ended the British occupation of the Atlantic coast of the United States.  After serving, US President George Washington appointed him Director of the United States Mint, serving from 1785 until 1805.

February 28,  John Wesley charters the Methodist Church.
            November 30, Richard Henry Lee of Virginia was elected as the 12th President of the Continental Congress.  He served 340 days at the age of 52.  He left office on November 30, 1784.  Previously he was with the Virginia House of Burgesses.  He is best known for his motion in the Second Continental Congress calling for the colonies' independence from Great Britain.  He was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence.
         There is a growing sense of crisis in the New Nation.  The British refuse to give up their forts on the Western Frontier.  The weak confederation government is unable to pay the national debt, regulate trade, resolve conflicts between states, or end an economic recession.

November 23,  John Hancock from of Massachusetts was elected as the 13th President of the Second Continental Congress.  He served 195 days at the age of 48.  He left office on June 5, 1786.  Previously he served as the first and third Governor of Massachusetts.  He is remembered for his large and stylish signature on the US Declaration of Independence.  He also served as the 4th President of the Continental Congress. See 1775

June 6, Nathaniel Gorham from of Massachusetts was elected as the 14th President of the Second Continental Congress.  He served 151 days at the age of 48.  He left office on November 3, 1786.  Previously he served on the Board of War and Ordnance, which was created by the Second Continental Congress as a special standing committee to oversee the American Continental Army's administration and to make recommendations regarding the army to Congress. 
July 6, The Dollar is unanimously chosen as the money unit for the United States.  This is the first time a nation has adopted a decimal coinage system. 
August 8, The Continental Congress of the United States authorized the issuance of the US dollar.
         September,  Representatives from five states discuss the regulation of commerce.  A new convention is scheduled to meet in 1787, to revise the Articles of Confederation.
            Winter,  Desperate Massachusetts farmers, suffering economically, resist the seizure of their property for debts or taxes.  A sense of crisis and fear of anarchy makes the reform of the confederation government urgent.

            February 2, Arthur St.Clair from of Pennsylvania was elected as the 14th President of the Continental Congress.  He served 276 days at the age of 48.  He left office on November 4, 1787.  Previously he was a Major General in the Continental Army.
            February 21, After debate, the Congress of the Confederation endorsed the plan to revise the Articles of the confederation.
            May 25,  The Federal Constitutional Convention convenes with George Washington presiding.  The the intent or purpose of this convention was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one.  One of the accomplishments was to draft a new constitution. 
            July,  The "Great Compromise," providing for equal state representation in the Senate and representation based on population in the lower house, breaks a deadlock between small and large states. .
            July 13, The Confederation Congress adopts the Northwest Ordinance providing for the settlement of western lands and the admission of new states into the union
            September 17, The final draft of  The United States Constitution was adopted  by the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  It was then sent to the states for approval.  The United States Constitution is the shortest and oldest written constitution still in use by any nation in the world today. All twelve state delegations approve the constitution and the Convention formally adjourns.
            December 7,  Delaware is the first state to ratify the new constitution.

January 22,  Cyrus Griffin from of the state of Virginia was elected as the 15th, and last, President of the Continental Congress.  He served 299 days at the age of 39.  He left office on November 15, 1788.  He resigned after the ratification of the United States Constitution rendered the old Congress obsolete.  Previously he served as judge for the Virginia Court of Appeals.  After he resigned the Presidency he became a United States federal judge.
           June 21,  New Hampshire becomes the ninth state to ratify the Constitution, putting it into effect.  Within a month, the two remaining key states of Virginia and New York also ratify the Constitution.  North Carolina signed on November 21, 1789,   and Rhode Island, on May 29, 1790.

            March 4, The first Congress under the constitution convenes in New York City.  George Washington becomes the first President of the United States.  This link will give a biography of each United States President.  George Washington was sworn in at Federal Hall in New York City.  President Washington was elected by a majority of Electoral College.  He was not a member of any political party but did adhere to some Federalist principals.  Previously he served as Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army.  (1775-1787)
            April 30, George Washington is inaugurated as the first president of the United States.  
            May 3, John Berry Meachum was born into slavery on this day.  He was best known for his important roles as a spiritual leader, educator and abolitionist,  best known for his important roles as a spiritual leader, educator and abolitionist.  He was the son of a Baptist preacher, was apprenticed as a youth to a white carpenter under whose tutelage learned the craft of cabinetmaking and coopering (barrel maker).  Of unusual talent and with a complying master, he eventually saved enough money to purchase his freedom and that of his father The son of a Baptist preacher, he was apprenticed as a youth to a white carpenter under whose tutelage he learned the craft of cabinetmaking and coopering. Of unusual talent and with a complying master, Meachum eventually saved enough money to purchase his freedom and that of his father.   In 1847, the slave state of Missouri banned all education for black people, one of severral restrictions on the lives of both enslaved blacks and free people of color,  It also prohibited them from having independent black religious services without a white  law enforcement officer present, or from holding any meetings for education or religion.  In response, Meachum moved his classes to a steamboat in the middle of the Mississippi River, which was beyond the reach of Missouri law.  He provided the school with a library, desks, and chairs and called it the "Floating Freedom School."  John died on February 19, 1854, while speaking to his congregation during church services.  See 1847 for more about Pastor Meachum's life.
            June 8, James Madison introduced the proposed Bill of Rights in the House of Representatives.
            September,  Congress sends twelve constitutional amendments protecting individual rights to the states for approval.
            September 24, Congress establishes a Supreme Court, 13 district courts, three ad hoc circuit courts, and the position of Attorney General.
            September 25, Congress approves 12 Amendments and sends them to the states for ratification.
            November 26,  In October 1789, with the recently finished draft of the Bill of Rights on his desk, President George Washington proclaimed a very special Thanksgiving Day for the young nation.  Declaring this day to be set aside for Americans to "unite in most humbly offering our prayers and supplications to the great Lord and Ruler of Nations, "Washington implored his fellow citizens to thank God for the Constitution "now lately instituted for the civil and religious liberty with which we are blessed."             
           The Supreme Court of the United States was implemented; under the Judiciary Act of 1789, the Court was to be composed of six members--though the number of justices has been nine for almost all of its history, this number is set by Congress, not the Constitution.  The court convened for the first time on February 2, 1790.

George Washington served as President of the United States.  John Adams was his Vice President. 
            January 9, U.S. President George Washington give the first State of the Union Address.
            February 2, The Supreme Court convenes for the fist time after an unsuccessful attempt on February 1.
            March 1, The first United States census is authorized.  
            May 29, Rhode Island ratifies the United States Constitution and becomes the last of the 13 original states to do so.
             July 16, The Residence Act provided for a new permanent capital to be located on the Potomac River, the exact area to be selected by President Washington.  See 1799
            July 31, Inventor Samuel Hopkins becomes the first to be issued a U.S. patent for an improved method of making potash.
            August 2, The first United States census showed a population of 3,929,625.
            August 4, Alexander Hamilton founded the Revenue Cutter Service, later known as the U.S. Coast Guard.

            George Washington served as President of the United States.  John Adams was his Vice President. 
            February 25, The First Bank of the United States is a National Historic Landmark located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania within Independence National Historical Park.  The First Bank was a bank chartered by  the United States Congress. The charter was for 20 years. The Bank was created to handle the financial needs and requirements of the central government of the newly formed United States, which had previously been thirteen individual colonies with their own banks, currencies, and financial institutions and policies.
            December 15, Congress added ten amendments to the U. S. Constitution Virginia was the eleventh state to ratify what is now known as The Bill of Rights, (the first ten amendments to the Constitution).

            George Washington served as President of the United States.  John Adams was his Vice President.
            April 2, The US Mint was formed.  The renowned scientist David Rittenhouse was the director from 1792 to 1795.
            May 11, Captain Robert Gray entered the Columbia River aboard the American sailing ship, Columbia Rediviva , thus naming this important waterway.
            August 29, Charles Finney was born in Warren, Connecticut.  Finney was the youngest of fifteen children, the son of farmers, Finney never attended college, but his six-foot three-inch stature, piercing eyes, musical skill and leadership abilities gained him recognition in his community.  He studied as an apprentice to become a lawyer, but after a dramatic conversion experience and baptism in Adams, New York, he gave up law to preach the gospel.  At age 29 under George Washington Gale, Finney studied to become a licensed minister in the Presbyterian Church, though he had many misgivings about the fundamental doctrines taught in the denomination.  He died on August 16, 1875 at the age of 82.
            October 29, Mount Hood in Oregon is named after the British naval officer Samuel Hood by Lt. William E. Broughton, who spots the mountain near the mouth of the Willamette River.
            Read a written historical account from the notes of Harley Hallgren, of what occurred in and around this year.
            Construction started on the building of the White House in Washington D.C.  It was completed in 1800.
George Washington served as President of the United States.  John Adams was his Vice President. 
            February 25, George Washington holds the first Cabinet meeting as President of the United States.
            March 4, George Washington is sworn in for his second term as President of the United States.
            March 12, Sam Houston was born on this date in Timber Ridge in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, of Scots-Irish descent.  Houston became a key figure in the history of Texas and was elected as the first and third President of the Republic of Texas, US Senator for Texas after it joined the United States, and finally as governor of the state.  He was a 19th-century American statesman, politician, and soldier.  He died on July 26, 1863 at the age of 70 in Huntsville, Texas.
            April 1, The Unsen volcano erupts in Japan and causes an earthquake; about 53,00 are killed.
            September 18, President George Washington sets the foundation stone for the U.S.Capitol building in Washington DC .  The Capitol is among the most architecturally impressive and symbolically important buildings in the world.  The Senate and the House of Representatives have met here for more than two centuries.  The US Capitol Building has been built, burnt, rebuilt, extended, and restored, today, it stands as a monument not only to its builders but also to the American people and their government.

            George Washington remained as President of the United States.  John Adams was his Vice President. 
            March 27, George Washington finally persuaded Congress to build 6 frigates, to help protect its merchant ships and seamen.  This chain of events created the United States Navy.
            April 11, Edward Everett was born in Dorchester, Massachusetts.  He was an American politician, pastor, educator, diplomat, and orator for Massachusetts.  Everett was affiliated with the Whig Political Party, served as U.S. Representative, U.S. Senator, the 15th Governor of Massachusetts, Minister to Great Britain, and United States Secretary of State.  He also taught at Harvard University and served as its president.  He died on January 15, 1865 in Boston Massachusetts at the age of 70.  An address at the opening of the Dudley Observatory in Albany, New York, Edward Everett remarked:   "I do not wonder at the superstition of the ancient magicians, who in the morning of the world, went up to the hilltops of Central Asia and, ignorant of the true God, adored the most glorious work of His hand.  But I am filled with amazement, when I am told, that, in this enlightened age and in the heart of the Christian world, there are persons who can witness this daily manifestation of the power and wisdom of the Creator, and yet say in their heart, 'There is no God.'"                                           From the book, America's God and Country Encyclopedia of Quotations Pg. 230 
             Anti-Federalist formed the Democratic-Republican Party, forerunner of the present Democratic Party.  The Democratic-Republican Party was dissolved in 1825.

George Washington remained as President of the United States.  John Adams was his Vice President. 
        The Mariners Temple was established in New York City.  It is now located on 3rd and Henry Streets in lower Manhattan.

George Washington remained as President of the United States.  John Adams was his Vice President. 
September 17, George Washington issued his Farewell Address.  The letter was originally prepared in 1792 with the help of James Madison, as Washington prepared to retire following a single term in office.  However, he set aside the letter and ran for a second term after his Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton, and his Secretary of State, Thomas Jefferson, convinced him that the growing divisions between the newly formed Federalist and Democratic-Republican parties, along with the current state of foreign affairs, would tear the country apart in the absence of his leadership.

            George Washington remained as President of the United States.  John Adams was his Vice President. 
January 31, Franz Schubert was born on this date in Vienna, Austria.  He wrote 145 songs or pieces, was an alcoholic and had no real success in his life.  He was a torch bearer at Beethoven's funeral.  He died November 19,1828 in Vienna.
  March 4, George Washington left office of US President.
         March 4, John Adams was inaugurated in Philadelphia as the 2nd U.S. President.  He belonged to the Federalist Party.  

            John Adams served as President of the United States.  Thomas Jefferson was his Vice President.  
            April 28, The mutiny on the British Royal Naval ship, Bounty, took place in the South Pacific.  The mutiny was led by Fletcher Christian against commanding officer Lieutenant William Bligh.  According to most accounts, the sailors were attracted to the idyllic life on the Pacific Island of Tahiti and were further motivated by harsh treatment from their captain. 
June-July, The repressive Alien and Sedition Acts became law.

            John Adams remained as President of the United States.  Thomas Jefferson was his Vice President.
            September 9, The new Federal city of Washington, on the Potomac River, was named in honor of George Washington. The district was named the Territory of Columbia, Columbia being a poetic name for the United States in use at that time.  See 1790 
            December 14, George Washington dies at Mount Vernon.  He was 67 years old.

            John Adams remained as President of the United States.  Thomas Jefferson was his Vice President.
March 20, Alessandro Volta reported of his discovery of the electric battery.
November 1, John Adams became the first President to occupy the Whitehouse.
November 17, Congress held its first session in Washington.

            John Adams remained as President of the United States.  Thomas Jefferson was his Vice President.
March 4, Thomas Jefferson was inaugurated as third President of the United States in Washington, D.C.  He belonged to the Democratic-Republican Party.
            May 1, The U.S. waged war against Tripoli to end acts of piracy. 
            May 10, the Pasha of Tripoli declared war on the U.S. 
            1801-1805, First Barbary War took place; it was also known as the Tripolitan War or the Barbary Coast War, was the first of two wars fought between the United States and the Northwest African Berber Muslim states know collectively as the Barbary States. 

Thomas Jefferson served as President of the United States.  He was a member of the Democratic-Republican Party.  Aaron Burr was his Vice President.

            Thomas Jefferson remained as President of the United States.  Aaron Burr was his Vice President.
            December 20, America and France agree to the Louisiana Purchase that extends the United States territory west to the "Continental Divide."
            Read a written historical account from the notes of Harley Hallgren, of what occurred in and around this year.

            Thomas Jefferson remained as President of the United States.  Aaron Burr was his Vice President.
            February 16, Lieutenant Stephen Decatur led a party of 75 volunteers into Tripoli's well guarded harbor and captured the USS Philadelphia, which was earlier captured by the Tripolitians.  It was was on fire by Decatur's seamen in Tripoli Harbor.
             March 4, Tomas Jefferson was elected President for another term.  George Clinton served as his Vice President
May 14, The Lewis and Clark Expedition began to explore the West.  They departed from Camp Dubois, near present day Hartford, Illinois, and began their historic journey.
            July 11, Vice President Aaron Burr wounded Alexander Hamilton in a duel in Weehawken Heights, New Jersey, but he died the next day.  At that time dueling was legal in most area's of the United States.

Thomas Jefferson remained as President of the United States.  Aaron Burr was his Vice President.
March 4, Thomas Jefferson was elected to a second term as US President.  George Clinton was elected as his Vice President.  He and John C. Calhoun are the only persons to have served as Vice President under two different US Presidents.  
            June 4, The Pasha of what is now Libya made peace on American Terms.  The US Navy, barely a decade old, had reached out 5,000 miles to safeguard our nations trade, ensuring that our merchant vessels could sail the Mediterranean unmolested.
September 27, George Muëller was born on this day.  He was a Christian evangelist and Directory of Orphanages in Bristol, England, cared for 10,024 orphans in his life.  He was well-known for providing an education to the children under his care, to the point where he was accused of raising the poor above their natural station in life.  He began running from God at an early age but then came to realize finally at the age of 20, the burden of his sins overcame him and he trusted Christ as Saviour. "At last I saw Christ as my Saviour.  I believed in Him and gave myself to Him.  The burden rolled from off me, and a great love for Christ filled my soul.  That was more than fifty years ago.  I loved Jesus Christ then, but I loved Him more the year after, and more the year after that, and more every year since."  (George Mueller)    He died on March 10, 1898 at he age of 92.
November 7, Lewis and Clark reached the Pacific coast. "Great joy in camp we are in view of the Ocean, (in the morning when fog cleared off just below last village (first on leaving this village)...) this great Pacific ocean which we been so long anxious to see, and the roaring or noise made by the waves breaking on the rocky shores (as I suppose) may be heard distinctly."

Thomas Jefferson remained as President of the United States.  George Clinton was his Vice President.
April 3, Captain William Clark set foot in the Oregon Territory, the first white man to do so.  

Thomas Jefferson remained as President of the United States.  George Clinton was his Vice President.
         March 3,  Congress ended the importation of slaves after January 1, 1808.  President Thomas Jefferson signed the bill into law on this date.

Thomas Jefferson remained as President of the United States.  George Clinton was his Vice President.

Thomas Jefferson remained as President of the United States.  George Clinton was his Vice President.
         February 12, Abraham Lincoln was born in Hardin County, Kentucky.  He died on April 15, 1865.
            March 4, James Madison was inaugurated President of the United States.  He was the fourth president of the United States.  He previously served as Secretary of State from 1801 to 1809.
            July 28, Frederick Olaus Nilsson, most often mentioned as first of the men who founded the Baptist General Conference was born this day on the west Coast of Sweden.
            December 24, Kit Carson was born in Madison County, Kentucky.  His legal name was Christopher Houston "Kit" Carson. Kit was an American frontiersman. The few paying jobs he had during his lifetime included mountain man (fur trapper), wilderness guide, Indian agent, and American Army officer.  He died on May 23, 1868 while under  doctors care for Aortic aneurysm at Fort Lyon, Colorado.

James Madison served as the 4th President of the United States.  He was a member of the Democratic-Republican Party.  George Clinton was his Vice President.
Joseph Meek was born in this year.  He was an early pioneer to the Oregon country.  He was born in Virginia and eventually traveled on the Oregon Trail to get to his land where he settled.  He died June 20, 1875 at his home on the land where he called home on the Tualatin Plains just north of Hillsboro, Oregon.  He was 65.
            October 27, The U.S. annexed and occupied West Florida.
            Rev. Francis Springer was born in Roxbury, Franklin County, Pennsylvania.  He was a chaplain during the civil war.  He was orphaned at the age of five and was raised by a Lutheran minister until age 14 when he was indentured to a carriage and ornamental painter for four years.  He entered Pennsylvania College, Gettysburg immediately following his indenture. He supported himself with occasional teaching jobs, as well as worked as a painter, and continued his studies at the Lutheran Theological Seminary, also in Gettysburg.  The Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Maryland licensed him to preach on October 18, 1836.  He served as the Post Chaplain at Fort Smith and also as Provost Marshal and Commissary Officer from September 1, 1863 through 1867.  Springer's real passion was to aid the widows, orphans and freed slaves displaced by the civil war.  On September 19, 1841, eight Springfield, Illinois citizens met at the home of Rev. Springer and incorporated the First Lutheran Church in Springfield.  He died in October 1892.  

James Madison served as President of the United States.  George Clinton was his Vice President.
November 7, Troops under the territorial governor of Indiana, William Henry Harrison, defeated a Shawnee Indian force at the Battle of Tippecanoe.
         Read a written historical account from the notes of Harley Hallgren of what occurred during this year.

James Madison served as President of the United States.  George Clinton was his Vice President.  There was no vice President during April 20, 1812 to March 4, 1813.
            February 7, Charles Dickens (Charles John Huffam Dickens)was born in Landport, Hampshire, England.  He was a distinguished English author whose works include: Pickwick Papers, 1837, Oliver Twist, 1838, David Copperfield, 1849-50. Great Expectations, 1860-61, Tale of Two Cities, 1859, and the favorite, A Christmas Carol, 1843.  He died on June 9, 1870 at the age of 58 in Higham, Kent, England.  Charles Dickens remarked "The New Testament is the very best book that ever was or ever will be known in the world" Pg 207 - America's God and Country Encyclopedia of Quotations.
            April 20, George Clinton, Vice President of the United States died of a heart attack  while still in office.  He was the first Vice President to die in office as well as the first Vice President to die overall.  The office was not filled until March 4, 1813, when Eldridge Gerry  was elected Vice President.
            May 26, Gustaf Palmquist was born in Smaland, Sweden.  He was one of the founders of the Baptist General Conference.
            June 18, The United States declared war with Britain, an action unpopular with many. This military action was declared to protect U.S. shipping and end impressments of seamen. (the act of compelling men into a navy by force and without notice.)  This declared military action by the United States would be later known as the War of 1812.
            August 19, The USS Constitution captured the HMS Guerriere off the Northeast coast of America.  This battle, the first of several U.S. Navy victories in ship-to-ship contest, encouraged Americans and chagrined the British.  Despite the rational excuse that Royal Navy frigates were not as large and powerful as their American counterparts, the real causes of these outcomes were inspired seamanship and vastly better gunnery.  For the rest of the 19th Century, long after the War of 1812 was over, America's Navy was credited with an effectiveness that went well beyond its usually modest size.  

James Madison served as President of the United States.  Eldridge Gerry was Vice President.
January 24, The Philharmonic Society was founded in London.  Later was known as the Royal Philharmonic Society.
            March 4, James Madison is sworn in as President of the United States, for his second term.
            March 19, David Livingstone was born on this day.  He was a Scottish Congregationalist pioneer medical missionary with the London Missionary Society and explorer in Africa.  His meeting with H.M. Stanley gave rise to the popular quotation, "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?"  He died on May 1, 1973.

James Madison served as President of the United States.  Eldridge Gerry was his Vice President.
August 23,24, British troops capture Washington D.C. and deliberately burned its public buildings.  Among the buildings they set fire to was the US Capitol.  This has been the only time since the Revolutionary War that a foreign power has captured and occupied the United States capital.
         September 14, Sir Francis Scott Key wrote the words to what we now know as the "Start Spangled Banner."  Originally called "Defense of Fort McHenry."
            November 23, Vice President, Eldridge Gerry fell seriously ill while at the Capitol building and died not long after returning to his boarding house.   
            December 24, The Treaty of Ghent, signed in Belgium on Christmas Eve, formally ended the War of 1812. 

James Madison served as President of the United States.   Madison served with out a Vice President until the next presidential election in 1817.  Madison was the only US President to serve with 2 Vice Presidents that both died in office.
January, Andrew Jackson, unaware that peace had been signed, defeated the British at New Orleans.
April 10, Mt. Tambora on the island of Sumbawa, in an Indonesian archipelago, erupted, pushing enough dust in the atmosphere to cause the northern hemisphere to be with out a summer that year. (The weather channel desktop)
Three Barbary States were forced to stop their piracy against U.S. ships by Captain Stephen Decatur.  The Marines Hymn contains a reference to this conflict in the opening line: "From the halls of Montezuma to the shores of Tripoli..."

James Madison served as President of the United States.
October 6, William B. Bradbury was born on this day.  He died on January 7, 1868.  Mr. Bradbury was a musician who composed the tune to "Jesus Loves Me," and many other popular hymns.

James Madison served as President of the United States.
March 4,  James Monroe was elected 5th President of the United States.  Daniel D. Tompkis was elected as his Vice president.  They were members of the Democratic-Republican Party.  Previously President Monroe held the office of Secretary of State from 1811 to 1817.
         July 17, Anders Wiberg was born on this day in Wi Village, Stora Tuna parish, Sweden.  For a time as a student in Uppsala University he became an atheist, but was converted and continued a true believer.  He went on to be one of the founders of the Baptist General Conference.

February, Fredrick Douglass or Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey was born in Cordova, Maryland.  He was an African-American social reformer, abolitionist, orator, writer, and statesman.  After escaping from slavery in Maryland, he became a national leader of the abolitionist movement in Massachusetts and New York, gaining note for his dazzling oratory and incisive antislavery writings.  In his time,  he was described by abolitionists as a living counter-example to slaveholders' arguments that slaves lacked the intellectual capacity to function as independent American citizens.  Northerners at the time found it hard to believe that such a great orator has once been a slave.  He died in Washington DC, on February 20, 1895 at the age of 77 of a heart attack.  

James Monroe served as President of the United States.  Daniel D. Tompkins was the Vice President.
February 22, Spain ceded claim to East Florida in return for $5 million.
March 29, Edwin Drake, the first person to drill for crude oil was born.
         The southern boundary of the United States was fixed at 42 degrees latitude by treaty with Spain.  The territory to the south including California and Nevada were Spanish and Mexican possessions until 1846 and 1848 respectively.
              Thomas Cotterill, a Sheffield vicar, was charged by a church court for using a hymn-book in their services. In the Church of England, hymn-singing was long considered to be illegal.  This test-case led to hymn-singing being more or less legally accepted in the Church of England.
            The Missouri Compromise--prohibiting slavery in the Louisiana Territory north of the 36° 30´ parallel--was approved.  The bill took 2 years to complete.    

James Monroe served as President of the United States.  Daniel D. Tompkins was the Vice President.
March 15, Maine was admitted to the Union as a free state.  It was the 23rd state to be admitted.
         March 24, Frances Jane Crosby, the daughter of John and Mercy Crosby, was born in Southeast, Putnam County, New York.  To this day, the vast majority of American hymnals contain her work.  Some of her best known songs include "Blessed Assurance," "Jesus is Tenderly Calling You Home," "Praise Him, Praise Him," and "To God Be the Glory."   To this day, the vast majority of American hymnals contain her work.  Because some publishers were hesitant to have so many hymns by one person in their hymnals, Crosby used nearly 100 different pseudonyms during her career.  She died on February 12, 1915.
            May 20, Florence Nightingale was born in Florence, Italy.  She was a celebrated English nurse, writer and statistician,  She came to prominence for her pioneering work in nursing during the Crimean war, where she tended to wounded soldiers.  She was dubbed "The Lady with the Lamp" after her habit of making rounds at night.  An Anglican, Nightingale believed that God has called her to be a nurse.  She laid the foundation of professional nursing with the establishing, in 1860, of her nursing school at St. Thomas' Hospital in London, the first secular nursing school in the world, now a part of King's College London.  The Nightingale Pledge taken by new nurses was named in her honor, and the annual International Nurses Day is celebrated around the world on her birthday. She died on August 13, 1910 at the age of 90, in London.
            August 30, George Fredrick Root was born in Sheffield, Massachusetts.  He was an American songwriter, who found particular fame during the American Civil War, with songs such as Tramp! Tramp! Tramp! and The Battle Cry of Freedom.  He is regarded as the first American to compose a secular cantata.  He died on August 6, 1895 at the age of 74 at Bailey Island, Maine.
            The First Mariners Church in New York City, New York was dedicated.  It is now known at the Mariners Temple Baptist Church.  It is located at 3 Henry Street, New York City, NY 10038.  see 1835
            Harriet Tubman (born Araminta Harriet Ross) was born sometime this year.  She was an African-American abolitionist, humanitarian, and Union spy during the American Civil War.  After escaping from slavery, into which she was born, she made thirteen missions to rescue more than 70 slaves using the network of the antislavery activists and safe houses known as the Underground Railroad.  She later helped John Brown recruit men for his raid on Harpers Ferry, and in the post-war era struggled for women's suffrage.  She was a devout Christian.  Surrounded by friends and family members, Harriet Tubman died of pneumonia on March 10, 1913.  She was 93 years old when she died.

James Monroe served as President of the United States.  Daniel D. Tompkins was the Vice President.
March 3, Thomas L. Jennings was the first African American to be granted a patent.  He owned a tailoring and dry-cleaning business and the patent was for a dry scrub process  He lived in New York City.  With two other prominent black leaders, Jennings organized the Legal Rights Association in 1855 in New York, which raised challenges to discrimination and organized legal defense for court cases.  He founded and was a trustee of the Abyssinian Baptist Church, a leader in the black community.
August 10, Missouri was admitted to the Union as a slave state.  It was the 24th state to be admitted. 

James Monroe served as President of the United States.  Daniel D. Tompkins was the Vice President.            

James Monroe served as President of the United States.  Daniel D. Tompkins was the Vice President.   
December 2, President James Monroe proclaimed his doctrine, warning European nations against further colonization on the Americas of interfering with the internal affairs of American nations.
December 31, William Orcutt Cushing was born on this date.  Cushing's parents were Unitarians and his early training was along these lines. When he retired from the ministry he began writing hymns. He completed over 300 in his lifetime. Some of the more noted were, "Hiding in Thee," "When He Cometh," and "Under His Wings." Died on October 19, 1902.

James Monroe served as President of the United States.  Daniel D. Tompkins was the Vice President
            November 15, Ellen Louise Demorest (Madame Demorest) was born.  She was a successful miner, widely credited for inventing mass-produced tissue paper dressmaking patterns.  With her husband William Jennings Demorest, she established a company to sell the patterns, which were adaptations of the latest French fashions, and a magazine to promote them.  Her dressmaking patterns made French styles accessible to ordinary women, thus greatly influencing US fashion.  She died on August 10, 1898. 
         Dr. John McLoughlin, of the Hudson Bay Company arrived in Oregon and moved headquarters to Fort Vancouver, which is located on the north bank of the Columbia River. See the following Web Sites:
McLoughlin House 
            History of John McLoughlin.  From 1824 to 1844 Dr. McLoughlin was virtually king of the Oregon Country from California to Alaska and from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. 
            James Monroe was President of the United States-March 4, 1817-March 3, 1825.  He was the fifth President.
            Russia renounced all interests to the land on the North American Continent below 54 degrees and 40 minutes north latitude.

James Monroe served as President of the United States.  Daniel D. Tompkins was the Vice President. 
March 4, John Quincy Adams was elected the sixth President of the United States.  He was a member to the Democratic-Republican Party.  He served as Secretary of State prior to being named President.  John C. Calhoun was the Vice President.
            October 26, The Erie Canal opens, providing passage from Albany, New York to Buffalo and Lake Erie.
            The first roller skates are invented.
            Aluminum is discovered.

John Quincy Adams served as President of the United States.  John C. Calhoun was the Vice President.
         Reginald Heber wrote the words to the hymn, "Holy, Holy, Holy," while he was Vicar of Hodnet, Scropshire, England.  The music was written for the hymn by John B. Dykes, in 1861.

John Quincy Adams served as President of the United States.  John C. Calhoun was the Vice President.
         The United States and Britain agreed to continue indefinitely the joint occupancy of the Oregon Country.  Rivalry between the Hudson Bay Company traders, trappers and British on hand and the increasing number of American traders, trappers and settlers was apparent.  See 1846 

John Quincy Adams served as President of the United States.  John C. Calhoun was the Vice President.
            September 9, Leo Tolstoy was born.  He was a Russian writer who is regarded as one of the greatest authors of all time.  He died on November 20, 1910 in Russia.
            October 20, Horatio Spafford was born.  In 1871, Horatio Spafford, a prosperous lawyer and devout Presbyterian church elder and his wife, Anna, were living comfortably with their four young daughters in Chicago.  In that year the great fire broke out and devastated the entire city.  Two years later the family decided to vacation with friends in Europe.  At the last moment Horatio was detained by business, and Anna and the girls went on ahead, sailing on the ocean line S.S. Ville de Havre.  On November 21, 1873, the liner was rammed amid ship by a British vessel and sank with in minutes.  Anna was picked up unconscious on a floating spar, the four children had drowned.  After receiving Anna's telegram, Horatio immediately left Chicago to bring his wife home.  An the Atlantic crossing, the captain of his ship called Horatio to his cabin to tell him that they were passing over the spot where his four daughters had perished.  He wrote to Rachel, his wife's half-sister, "On Thursday last we passed over the spot where she went down, in mid-ocean, the waters three miles deep.  But I do not think of our dear one there.  They are safe, folded, the dear lambs."  Horatio wrote this hymn, " It Is Well With My Soul," still sung today, as he passed over their watery grave.  He died on October 16, 1888, of malaria, and was buried in Mourn Zion Cemetery, Jerusalem.
            The Democratic Party was formed.

John Quincy Adams served as President of the United States.  John C. Calhoun was the Vice President.
        January 17, Catherine Booth was born.  She was born Catherine Mumford in Ashbourne, Derbyshire, England, the daughter of John Mumford and Sarah Milward.  Her father was a coach builder.  From an early age Catherine was a serious and sensitive girl.  She had a strong Christian upbringing, even going so far as to read her Bible through eight times before the age of 12.  She married William Booth on June 16, 1855.  She met William, a Methodist minister, when he came to preach at her church in 1852.  They were married on 16 June 1855.  Even on their honeymoon, William was asked to speak at meetings.  Together they accepted this challenge.  The Booths had eight children: Bramwell, Ballington, Kate, Emma, Herbert, Marie, Evangeline, Lucy, and were dedicated to giving then a firm Christian knowledge.  Two of their children, Bramwell and Evangeline, later became Generals of the Salvation Army.  On October 4, 1890 she died in her husband's arms with her family around her.  See William Booth below in this year.
            March 4, Andrew Jackson was elected 7th President of the United States.  He served until March 3, 1837.  He was the seventh President and the first one to run as a Democratic.  He was previously to being elected as President a US Senator from Tennessee
            April 10, William Booth was born.  He was a British Methodist preacher who founded The Salvation Army and became its first General (1878-1912).  The Christian movement with a quasi-military structure and government founded in 1865 has spread from London, England to many parts of the world and is known for being one of the largest distributors of humanitarian aid.   He died on August 20, 1912 at the age of 82.

Andrew Jackson served as President of the United States.  John C. Calhoun was the Vice President.
            January 2, Henry Morrison Flagler was born in Hopewell, New York and was the son of Elizabeth Caldwell Morrison Harkness and the Rev. Isaac Flagler, a Presbyterian minister.  He was an American industrialist and founder of Standard OilMr. Flagler was also a key figure in the development of the eastern coast of Florida along the Atlantic Ocean and was the founder of what became the Florida East Coast Railway.  We is known as the father of Miami, Florida and also founded Palm Beach, Florida.  He died in Palm Beach, Florida on May 20, 1913 at the age of 83.
May 28, The United States Congress passes the Indian Removal Act.
            June 18, Elizabeth Clephane was born in Edinburgh, Scotland.  She was the author of the hymns "Beneath the Cross of Jesus" and "The Ninety and Nine".  It has been said that Elizabeth wrote "The Ninety and Nine" for her brother, George Clephane, who had "returned to the flock" only a short time before his death.  As the story goes, he fell from his horse and struck his head upon a rock and was killed instantly. She died on February 19, 1869 in Scotland.
            July 18, Uruguay adopts its first Constitution.  

Andrew Jackson served as President of the United States.  John C. Calhoun was the Vice President.
March 12, Clement Studebaker, American automobile pioneer was born today.
July 4, James Monroe, 5th President of the United States died today.
August 7, American Baptist minister William Miller preaches his first sermon on the Second Advent of Christ in Dresden, New York, launching the Advent Movement in the United States.  The largest church within the movement today is the Seventh-Day Adventist Church.

Andrew Jackson served as President of the United States.  John C. Calhoun was the Vice President.
February 3, William H. Doane was born on this date. From his early boyhood Dr. Doane was interested in music. In 1875, Denison University conferred upon him the honorary degree of doctor of music. Some of the many songs he composed were "Safe in the Arms of Jesus," "Rescue the Perishing," and "Pass Me Not, O Gentle Savior."  Dr. Doane died in 1915.
May 21, James Hudson Taylor was born on this day.  He was a British Protestant Christian Protestant Christian missionary to China, and founder of the China Inland Mission.  Taylor spent 51 years in China.  He died on June 3, 1905.
December 10, President Jackson declared South Carolina's nullification of U.S. tariff laws an act of rebellion.  This ordinance declared, by the power of the State itself, that the federal Tariff of 1828 and 1832 were unconstitutional and therefore null and void within the sovereign boundaries of South Carolina.
            December 28, John C. Calhoun left the office of Vice President of the United States.  Andrew Jackson served with out a Vice president until March 4, 1833. 
         Read a written historical account from the notes of  Harley Hallgren; a story called, "The Indians want the Book.

Andrew Jackson served as President of the United States.
March 4, Andrew Jackson is sworn in for his second term as President of the United States.  He was the seventh President of the United States.  Martin Van Buren was elected his Vice President.
            October 21, Alfred Nobel, Swedish inventor of dynamite, creator of the Novel Prize was born today.
            The State of Massachusetts disestablished the church, completing the legal separation of church and state in the U.S.

Andrew Jackson served as President of the United States.  Martin Van Buren was the Vice President.
            March 24, John Wesley Powell was born.  He was the son of a protestant minister and is famous for leading the 1869 Powell Geographic Expedition, a three-month river trip down the Green and Colorado rivers that included the first known passage through the Grand Canyon.  He did this feat with only one arm, which he lost in the Civil War at the battle of Shiloh.  He died on September 23, 1902 at the age of 68.
            June 19, Charles Haddon Spurgeon was born in Kelvedon, Essex, England. Click here to see Spurgeon Website
         The Rev. Jason Lee and his nephew the Rev. Daniel Lee were sent out by the Methodists.  Work was commenced near Salem and on October 6, the first Protestant Mission west of the Rockies was opened.
            Read a written historical account from the notes of Harley Hallgren relating to Jason Lee and the first mission.
            Jacob Perkins invented a closed loop Refrigeration system.

Andrew Jackson served as President of the United States.  Martin Van Buren was the Vice President.
            January 30, President Andrew Jackson became the first American president to experience an assassination attempt.  Richard Lawrence, an unemployed house painter approached The President as he left a congressional funeral held in the House chamber of the Capitol building and shot at him, but his gun misfired.  President Jackson confronted his attacker, clubbing Mr. Laurence several times with his walking cane.  During the scuffle, Mr. Laurence managed to pull out a second loaded pistol and pulled the trigger, but that gun also misfired.
            October 2, The Texas war for independence from Mexico began at the Battle of Gonzales fought on this day.   Texas in an Indian word meaning friends.
            Fredrick O. Nilsson converted at a revival meeting at the Mariners Church in New York City.  The first church in the United States devoted exclusively to sailors and their families was the First Mariners Church in New York City, dedicated in 1820.

Andrew Jackson served as President of the United States.  Martin Van Buren was the Vice President.
March 2, The State of Texas declared its independence from Mexico.
            March 6, The Alamo was captured by the Mexican Army.  Originally The Alamo was established in 1718 as a Franciscan mission and is known for its important role in the Texas Revolution, when some 200 Texans and Tejanos made a final stand against Mexican soldiers in this year.
            April 21, The Texians defeated the Mexican Army at the Battle of San Jacinto, ending the revolution.  
            July 9, Plillip P. Bliss, Christian hymn writer was born on this day.  One of the songs he wrote was, "It is Well With My Soul."  Mr. Bliss wrote at least 64 Gospel Hymns.  He died on December 29, 1976.
            October 22, Sam Houston became first President of the new republic of Texas.
            December 14, Frances Ridley Havergal was born on this day.  She was an English religious poet and hymn writer.  "Thy Life for Me" is one of her best known hymns.  She also wrote hymn melodies, religious tracts, and works for children.  She wrote over 80 songs which are listed in the web page link above, a couple more familiar are, "I Gave My Life For Thee," "Like a River Glorious," and "Take My Life and Let It Be."  She died on June 3, 1879 at the age of 42.

Ulysses S. Grant served as President of the United States.   Scuyler Colfax was the Vice President.
         January 1, Willamette Falls Locks opens its gates for the first time to river traffic traveling along the Willamette, allowing safe portage around the 40-foot-high falls.
            February 4, George Bennard was born on this day.  He was an American hymn composer and preacher.  He is best know for composing the words and music to the famous hymn, "The Old Rugged Cross."  He died on October 10, 1958.
            March 4, Ulysses S. Grant was reelected a second term as President of the United States.  Henry Wilson served as the 18th Vice President.
            May 20, Jacob Davis & Levi Strauss.  Jacob Davis got the idea of making riveted pants in Reno, Nevada.  Jacob shared his idea with Levi, his fabric supplier in San Francisco, and asked him to be a patent partner and help with the large-scale manufacture of these innovative pants.  They received the patent for the first riveted work pants known today and blue jeans. (Levi's)
            August 2, a fire gutted much of Portland's business district and damage was estimated at $1,345,400.
            November 22, While crossing the Atlantic on the steamship Ville du Havre, their ship was struck by an iron sailing vessel and 226 people lost their lives, including all four of Horaito Spafford's daughters.  His wife, Anna Spafford survived the tragedy.  Upon arriving in England, she sent a telegram to Spafford beginning "Saved alone."  Spafford then sailed to England, going over the location of his daughters' deaths.  According to Bertha Spafford Vester, a daughter born after the tragedy, Spafford wrote "It is Well with My Soul" on this journey.
            December 16, Robert Jaffray was born.  He was a missionary to China, Indonesia, and several other countries, with the Christian and Missionary Alliance who served as the founding principal of the Alliance Seminary in Hong Kong and principal contributor and editor of the Chinese language Bible Magazine.  Jaffrary founded the first Chinese missionary society called the Chinese Foreign Missionary Union in 1929.  His life is chronicled in the biography by A. W. Tozer, Let my people go!: The life of Robert A Jaffray, (1947).  He died on July 29, 1945.
            Financial Panic of 1837
            Samuel Kaboo Morris was born sometime this year.  He was a Liberian prince who converted to Christianity around the age of 14.  Around age 18, he left Liberia for the United States to achieve an education and arrived at Taylor University in December 1891.  Morris's life has been the subject of five novels, over a dozen biographies, a 1954 film, and a 1988 documentary.  Taylor University has named numerous building, scholarships, and a society in his honor.  His story helped to inspire other people to go to Africa to preach the gospel.  He died on May 12, 1893 from complications of a respiratory infection.
            The book, "Around the World in Eighty Days," by Jules Verne, was first published.
            Nicholas Hayland is Bethel Seminary's first graduate.

            Martin Van Buren served as President of the United States.  Richard Mentor Johnson was the Vice President.
February 27, William James Kirkpatrick was born on this day.
May 26, The Cherokee Indian Tribe is forcibly relocated in the Trail of Tears.
            July 9, Philip Bliss was born.  He was an American composer, conductor, bass-baritone writer of hymns and a Gospel singer.  He wrote many well-known hymns including Almost Persuaded, Hallelujah, What a Saviour!, Let the Lower Lights Be Burning, Wonderful Words of Life, and the tune for Horatio Spafford's  It Is Well with My Soul.  On December 29, 1876 the Pacific Express train which Bliss and his wife were traveling in approached Ashtabula, Ohio.  While the train was in the process of crossing a trestle bridge, which collapsed, all carriages fell into the ravine below.  Bliss escaped the carriage but the carriages caught fire and Bliss returned to try and extricate his wife.  Ho trace of either body was discovered.  Ninety-two of the 160 passengers are believed to have died in what became known as the Ashtabula River Railroad Disaster.
            September 1, William Clark, American explorer dies.  He and Meriwether Lewis, leader of the Lewis and Clark Exposition and walked the Oregon Trail, which runs from Independence, Missouri to Oregon City, Oregon.
            The first picture ever taken with a human being in it was taken in Paris, France of the Boulevard du Temple, taken by Louis Daguerre in later part of this year.

Martin Van Buren served as President of the United States.  Richard Mentor Johnson was the Vice President.
            February 20, John Alexis Edgren was born this day in Alfsbacka, Varmland, Sweden.  He was the eldest child in a family of five brothers and three sisters.  At the age of 20 he passed the stiff requirements for the captain's rank in the navigation school of Stockholm.  He later became one of the founders of Bethel Theological Seminary.  See 1908
            May 7, Elisha Hoffman was born on this day.  He was an American minister and Gospel song writer who wrote the words and music for such familiar hymns as "Are you Washed in the Blood?," "I Must Tell Jesus," "Is Your all on the Altar?," and "What a Wonderful Saviour!"  Mr. Hoffman died on November 25, 1929.
            October 31, 1st Baptist Church in Denmark was organized with 11 members.

Martin Van Buren served as President of the United States.  Richard Mentor Johnson was the Vice President.
            January 3, Jozef  De Veuster was born on this date in Tremelo, Belgium.  He became a Roman Catholic priest and member of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary, a missionary religious institute.  He became Father Damien or Saint Damien of Molakai, Hawaii.  He won recognition for his ministry in the Kingdom of Hawaii, to people with leprosy (also known as Hansen's disease), who had been placed under a government-sanctioned medical quarantine on the island of Molokai.  After sixteen years caring for the physical, spiritual, and emotional needs of those in the leper colony, he eventually contracted and died of the disease, and is considered, "Martyr of Charity".  He was the tenth person recognized as a saint by the Catholic Church to have lived, worked, and/or died in what is now the United States.  He died at the age of 49 in Kalaupapa, Molakai, Hawaii.
March 9, The Wilmington and Raleigh Railroad is completed from Wilmington, North Carolina to Weldon, North Carolina. At 161.5 miles, it is the world's longest railroad.
            May 1, Britain issues the Penny Black, the world's first postage stamp.
            May 21, New Zealand is declared a British colony.
            July 4, James McGranahan was born on this date.  Mr. McGranahan was a talented and cultured American musician who was gifted with a rare tenor voice and studied for years with eminent teachers who urged him to train for a career in opera. His friend Philip P.Bliss was encouraging him to instead of putting his talents to opera was praying James would become focused on Gospel music.  One week before Phillip Bliss and his wife died, December 19, 1876, in the terrible train crash he wrote James a letter and said, "Strike into the grain to reap for the reap for the reap for the Master!"  Not long after that James decided to yield his life, his talents, his all to the service of his Savior.  He would "strike into the grain to reap for the Master." He died on July 9, 1907.
            August 28, Ira D. Sankey was born on this day.  He was known as "The Sweet Singer of Methodism," was an American gospel singer and composer, associated with evangelist Dwight L. Moody.  Sankey composed about 1,200 songs in his life-time.  Some of his more familiar ones are, "Faith Is The Victory," "How Can I Keep From Singing," and "The Model Church."  He died on August 13, 1908.
            September 27, Thomas Nast was born in Landau, Germany.  He was an American caricaturist and editorial cartoonist who is considered to be the "Father of the American Cartoon".  Among his notable works were the creation of the modern version of Santa Clause and the political symbol of the elephant for the Republican Party.  Contrary to popular belief, Nast did not create the image of Uncle Sam or the Democratic donkey, though he did popularize these symbols through his art. He died on December 7, 1902 in Guayaquil, Ecuador at the age of 62.
            November 7,  In the U.S. presidential election; William Henry Harrison defeats Martin Van Buren.  He was the ninth President of the United States and the first president to die in office.  He was in office 32 days before he died.  He had a nickname of  "Tippecanoe."
            November 14, Claude Monet, the French painter was born on this day.  He was the founder of French Impressionist painting.  He died on December 5, 1926.
            November 22, Daniel Webster Whittle was born on this day.  He was an American poet, writer, evangelist, and Bible teacher.  He was an American poet, hymn writer, evangelist, and Bible teacher.  Influenced by Dwight L. Moody, he entered full time evangelism and worked with P.P. bliss and James McGranahan. He wrote the words to many well recognized hymns such as, "I know Whom I Have Believed," "Hark! The Herald Angels Sing" and "And Can It Be that I Should Gain."  He died on March 4, 1901.
            December 12,  Charlotte Digges "Lottie" Moon was born on this day.  She was a Southern Baptist missionary to china with the Foreign Mission Board who spent nearly forty years (1873-1912) living and working in China.  As a teacher and evangelist she laid a foundation for traditionally solid support for missions among Baptists in America. 
  Throughout her missionary career, Moon faced plagues, famine, revolution, and war.  The First Sino-Japanese War in 1894, the Boxer Rebellion in 1900, and the Chinese nationalist uprising, (which overthrew the Qing Dynasty in 1911) all profoundly affected mission work.  Famine and disease took their toll, as well.  When Moon returned from her second furlough in 1904, she was deeply struck by the suffering of the people who were literally starving to death all around her.  She pleaded for more money and more resources, but the mission board was heavily in debt and could send nothing.  Mission salaries were voluntarily cut.  Unknown to her fellow missionaries, Moon shared her personal finances and food with anyone in need around her, severely affecting both her physical and mental health.  In 1912, she weighed 50 pounds.  Alarmed, fellow missionaries arranged for her to be sent back home to the United States with a missionary companion.  However, Moon died on route, at the age of 72, on December 24, 1912, in the harbor of Kobe, Japan.  Her body was cremated and remains returned to her family in Crewe, Virginia, for burial.

Martin Van Buren served as President of the United States.  Richard Mentor Johnson was the Vice President.
March 4, William Henry Harrison was elected the 9th President of the United States.  Prior to his election he held the office of Minister to Columbia.  President Harrison was a member of the Whig PartyJohn Tyler was elected Vice President.
April 4, President William Henry Harrison dies in office of pneumonia.            
            April 6, John Tyler was President of the United States,  he served until March 3, 1845.  He was the tenth elected President.
            November 4, Benjamin Franklin Goodrich was born.  In 1869, Mr. Goodrich purchased the Hudson River Rubber company, a small business in Hastings-on-Hudson, New York. The following year, Goodrich accepted an offer of $13,600 from the citizens of Akron, Ohio, to relocate his business there.  The company became one of the largest tire and rubber manufactures in the world, helped in part by the 1986 merger with Uniroyal.  The product line was sold to Michelin in 1988.

John Tyler served as President of the United States.  There was no Vice President for President Tyler's term in office.
March 30, Anesthesia is used for the first time in an operation in Danielsville, Georgia, (Dr. Crawford Long performed the operation using ether).
            Willamette University in Salem, Oregon was founded.

John Tyler served as President of the United States.
The earliest-known printed Christmas card was made for the Englishman Sir Henry Cole.  He commissioned an artist to create 1,000 engraved holiday cards in this year.  Cole's greeting featured a prosperous looking family toasting the holidays, flanked on both sides by images of kindly souls engaging in acts of charity..  A caption along the bottom read, "A Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year to You." 
Tradition has it that a Tom Johnson, who had left the British Navy and taken American citizenship, was the only settler on the Willamette below the Falls (Oregon City), at this time.  
            In the summer of this year, A. L. Lovejoy and Tom Overton, in passing from Vancouver to Oregon City, appraised the favorable location here for a settlement and a city.  Acting at once, they roughly staked out a claim running from somewhere near the present line of West Burnside, south to about the present Jefferson Street.  This was the year when a group of settlers of the Oregon Country, principally from the upper part of the Willamette Valley, organized a provisional government for the people in these regions.
            Joseph Meek started the office of Sheriff in the Washington County area and became the first Sheriff even before Oregon was a state.
            Read a written historical account from the notes of Harley Hallgren about The Oregon Trail.
            Read a written historical account from the notes of Harley Hallgren about Champoeg

John Tyler served as President of the United States.
         May 25, The first Baptist Church in the Oregon Country was organized at West Union in the home of Elder, David T. Lennox, by "a few of us who have been thrown together in the wilds of the west."  They met there until the dedication of their new church building December 25, 1853
            June 6, The Young Men's Christian Association was founded in London, England.  
           F. W. Pettygrove took over the interest of Overton, and with Lovejoy, had the first log cabin built near the foot of the present Washington Street.  The town was on the way.  What to name it?  Lovejoy from Massachusetts, wanted Boston; Pettygrove, a Maine man, liked Portland.  They flipped a copper coin--luck was with Pettygrove.
           Read a written historical account from the notes of Harley Hallgren about the city of  Portland around this point in time.
           Read a written historical account from the notes of Harley Hallgren about the city of  Corvallis around this point in time.
           Read a written historical account from the notes of Harley Hallgren about the city of  Salem around this point in time.

John Tyler served as President of the United States.
            March 4, James Polk was elected 11th President of the United States.  He served until 1849.  He belonged to the Democratic Party.  Previously he served as Governor of Tennessee.  George M. Dallas served as his Vice President.
            October 10,  Timothy Richard was born.  He was a Welsh Baptist missionary to China. He was born in Camarthenshire in south Wales, the son of Timothy and Eleanor Richard, a devout Baptist farming family.  Timothy started out as a teacher but was inspired to become a missionary and left teaching to enter Haverfordwest Theological College in 1865.  There he dedicated himself to China.  Richard applied to a newly formed China Inland Mission, but Hudson Taylor considered that he woild be of better service to the denominational Baptist mission.  In 1869, the Baptist Missionary Society accepted Richard's application, and assigned him to Yantai, Shandong Province in mainland China.  He died on April 17, 1919 at the age of 74, in London.

John Tyler served as President of the United States.  George M. Dallas served as his Vice President.
February 26, George C. Stebbins was born on this day.  Around the year 1869, he moved to Chicago, Illinois, and became music director at the First Baptist Church in Chicago.  It was in Chicago that he met the leaders in the Gospel music field, such as George Root, Philip Bliss, and Ira Sankey.  He wrote the music to "Take Time to be Holy," "Jesus, I Come," and "Throw Out The Life Line."  He died on October 6, 1945.
         June 15, For a time war seemed inevitable over land possession between the United States and Britain, but a treaty was arranged fixing the northern boundary of the United States, at least over the Oregon Country,  at 49 degrees North Latitude.  Back to 1827
           August 10, The Smithsonian Museum in Washington D.C. was established.  Click here to view the Smithsonian web site.
           October 16, Anesthetics was introduced in the medical profession.

John Tyler served as President of the United States.  George M. Dallas served as his Vice President.
            May 7, The American Medical Association was formed.
            November 8, Rev Anders Wiberg resigned as priest in the State Church of Sweden.
            The Presbyterians sent Dr. Marcus Whitman and the Rev. Samuel Parker who established their mission station near the site of Walla Walla.  It was here that Dr. Whitman and others were massacred by Indians in this year.
         The First Baptist Church of Oregon City was organized.
            Missouri outlawed African-American schools inside the state's borders.  John Berry Meachum, a black Baptist, conducted Sunday school on a steamboat in the Mississippi River near St. Louis.  For nearly 20 years, Black children learned to read on Meachum's "Steamboat Sunday School."  
Return to 1789

John Tyler served as President of the United States.  George M. Dallas served as his Vice President.
            August 14, Congress passed a bill admitting Oregon as a territory.
            September 21, first New Testament baptismal service in Sweden (of definite record) at Vallersvik near Gothenburg--5 were baptized.
            December 2, Mary Slessor was born.  She was a Scottish missionary to Nigeria.  Her determined work and strong personality allowed her to be trusted and accepted by the locals, spreading Christianity and promoting women's rights.  She died on January 13, 1915.
            There were six Baptist Churches in Oregon and the Willamette Baptist Association was formed.
            The California gold rush draws men from Portland, and nearly depopulates the village.
            A Methodist Episcopal church is organized.
            Read a written historical account from the notes of Harley Hallgren, having to do with the Oregon Territory in 1848.  

John Tyler served as President of the United States.  George M. Dallas served as his Vice President.
            March 3, Oregon was proclaimed a territory, which included the present State of Washington and more land to the east.    
            March 4, David Rice Atchison was President of the United States for one day.  He was the only man in history to have done this.  March 4th was on a Sunday, the day Zachary Taylor was to take the oath for President.  Mr. Taylor felt convicted of his religious beliefs and said he would not officially do the ceremony and take office until the next day, Monday.  David Atchison was President of the Senate at the time so he assumed the Presidency for that day.
            April 10, Walter Hunt was issued a patent for the safety pin.  It is the one that bears resemblance to the one used today.  He also invented the fountain pen, sewing machine, flax, streetcar bell, hard-coal-burning stove, street sweeping machinery, velocipede, and the ice plough boat.     
            May 6, Fredrick O. Nilsson ordained to the Gospel ministry in Hamburg, Germany.  John Oncken, Kobner and Schauffler officiated.  Return to 1835 
            May 29, Abe Lincoln said, "You can fool some of the people all of the time, and all of the people some of the time, but you can not fool all of the people all of the time."
            Portland gets its first Post Office.
            It is interesting to note that the governorship of Oregon Territory, at this time was offered by The President at that time, to Abraham Lincoln.  by Harley Hallgren.  The President in that year was James Polk whose term ran out on March 4th and Zachary Taylor who was elected our 12th President, March 4th, and died one year later on July 9, 1850.

Zachary Taylor served as 12th President of the United States.  Millard Fillmore served as his Vice President.  They both belonged to the Whig party.  Prior to President Taylor becoming President he served as U.S. Army Brigadier General from the 9th Infantry Regiment.
March 5, Daniel B. Towner was born on this day.  He was a composer who held a Doctorate of music , and used his abilities to develop the music to several Christian hymns which are still popular today.  A couple of the hymns he composed the music for were,  "At Calvary," "Trust and Obey."  He died on October 3, 1919.
July 9, President Taylor died at 10:35 pm.  He was 65 years old.  He died of an unknown digestive ailment.
July 9, Richard Fillmore was sworn is as President of the United States to fill out the remainder of President Taylor's term.  The Vice President office was left vacant.
            December 4,--The first issue of the Oregonian Newspaper was published. 
            The first steps toward the organization of a Baptist church in Portland were taken.  For more information Click Here.
            Henry Wemme was born during this year from what information can be found. He was a wealthy businessman in Portland and was an active business investor during the pioneering era of automobiles and aviation.  He owned the first automobile in the city, which was a Locomobile Steamer.  He died in 1914.

Richard Fillmore served as the 13th President of the United States.
         January 14, the Oregon territorial house of representatives passed Portland's charter.
            February 8, Portland, Oregon officially became a city. 
            April 7, Hugh O'Bryant became Portland's first elected mayor.
            April 15, Josiah Failing with his sons, Henry and John Failing arrived in Portland.  They were the first Baptist family to settle in the little town.  They built a store building, twenty feet front and fifty feet deep on the S. W. corner of Front and Oak St. and opened a general merchandise store as soon as the goods arrived from the East.  Read and account of Josiah Failing and his observations of Portland.
           November 14, The American edition of the book Moby Dick was published by Harper & Brothers, New York.
            December 13, Edwin O. Excell was born on this date.  He was a prominent American Publisher, composer, song leader, and singer of music for church, Sunday school and evangelistic meetings during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. He was known as a leading American hymnbook publisher,  arrangement of "Amazing Grace," "Count Your Blessings," and I'll be a Sunbeam."  He died on June 10, 1921.
           Portland had a population of 300 to 400 people.
           An Act of Congress extended US Mail service to Oregon. 

Richard Fillmore served as President of the United States.
         June, Gustaf Palmquist was baptized at Galesburg, Illinois.
            July 23, Rev. Anders Wiberg was baptized by F. O. Nilsson near Copenhagen, Denmark on his first journey to America. 
            August 3, this day marked the beginning of what would grow to be our Baptist General Conference.
           To read some small part of history of the Baptist General Conference, click here.
August 13, Gustaf Palmquist baptized two men and one woman in the Mississippi River at Rock Island, Illinois, and led to the formation of the first Swedish Baptist Church in America.  It was a small beginning, to be sure.  During the next 100 years, Swedish Baptist believers reached out to their fellow immigrants across the United States.  Men and women committed their lives to Christ and were baptized.
            September 26, 1st Swedish Baptist Church in America was organized at Rock Island, Illinois, with six members.  Four years and five days after the 1st Swedish Baptist church in Sweden.  Gustaf Palmquist conducted the business session.

Richard Fillmore served as President of the United States.
March 4, Franklin Pierce was elected the 14th President of the United States.  William R. King served as his Vice President.  They were affiliated with the Democratic Party.  Prior the President Pierce being President he was the Minister to the United Kingdom.
            April 18, William R. King the Vice President of the United States died of tuberculosis.  He served only 45 days.  The office went vacant until the next president was elected.    
July 14, a post office opened at Wapato, Oregon
            August 18, Belle of Oregon City was the first iron vessel built in Oregon for the Washington Territory.  First steam vessel to have machinery built in Oregon.  The Belle was dismantled in 1869 and the engines went to a sawmill.
         December 25,  The present building of the West Union Baptist Church was dedicated.  It is the oldest Protestant church building, still standing, west of the Rocky Mountains.  30 X 40 feet in size with rafters of cedar poles,  the joists of fir poles and the sills of hand-hewn fir logs.  An annual memorial meeting is held in this other wise unused building, because of its historic significance.  (Since the writing of these minutes, church service is held on a regular basis as well as a Sunday School.)  The floor is made of wood planking with straight back wood pews.  The ends of the pews are equipped with doors.  The church building  is still today in the same condition as when it was built.  There is a pump organ that is used for music.  The church has a fresh coat of white paint.  The windows are covered with shutters that are usually closed except when added lighting is needed.   was dedicated.  Click Here to see photos of West Union Baptist Church taken, October, 2001.  Return to 1844  
             The government established a post office at Tualatin, a station one mile south of Forest Grove.
            The Otis Elevator Company was founded in Yonkers, New York by Elisha Otis .  When Elisha died in 1861, his sons Charles and Norton formed a partnership and continued the business.

            Franklin Pierce served as President of the United States.
         Oldest Swedish Baptist Church building in the world was erected at New Sweden, Iowa.

            Franklin Pierce served as President of the United States.
            May 6, At 10:30 am, a church organization in Portland, was formed, with ten members.  Rev. W. F. Boyakin was chosen pastor, and Josiah Failing, deacon.  This was the beginning of the First Baptist Church in Downtown Portland, today located at 909 SW 11th.  Their first service was held in the newly completed County Court room in the Robinson Building on the corner of Front and Salmon Streets.   Rev. Hezekiah Johnson preached the dedication sermon.

            Franklin Pierce served as President of the United States.
January 26, Eric Sandell was born on this day.  He became a teacher and acting dean of Bethel Seminary after John Edgren resigned due to failing health.  Eric Sandell died on February 12, 1918.
         April 5, Booker T. (Taliaferro) Washington was born in Hale's Ford, Virginia.  He was born a slave on the 207-arce farm of James Burroughs.  He worked his way through Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (now Hampton University) and attended college at Wayland Seminary (now Virginia Union University).  In 1876, Washington returned to live in Malden, West Virginia, teaching Sunday School at African Zion Baptist Church' he married his first wife, Fannie Smith, at the church in 1881.  After the Civil War, he became the first principal of Tuskegee Normal and Industrial School.  Later as an adviser, author and orator, his past would influence his philosophies as the most influential African American of his era.  When Washington's autobiography, Up from Slavery, was published in 1901, it became a best seller and had a major impact on the African American community, its friends and allies.  One of the results was a dinner invitation to the White house in 1901 by President Theodore Roosevelt. He died in Tuskegee Alabama on November 14, 1915 at the age of 59.
            June 20-25, the first conference of Swedish Baptists anywhere in the world was organized at Rock Island, Illinois.
            October 7, Moses Fleetwood "Fleet" Walker was born in Mount Pleasant, Ohio.  He was an American baseball player, inventor, and author.  He is credited by some with being the first African American to play Major League Baseball.  Walker played one season as the catcher of the Toledo Blue Stockings, a club in the American Association.  He then played in the minor leagues until 1889, when the professional baseball erected a color barrier that stood for nearly 60 years.  He died on May 11, 1924 in Cleveland Ohio.
            Elizabeth Prentiss wrote the hymn, "More Love to Thee."
            Sir Arthur Conan Doyle writes the first Sherlock Holms mystery.
            N.W. Goodwin invents celluloid film.

            Franklin Pierce served as President of the United States.
March 4. James Buchanan was elected as the 15th President of the United States.  Previously he served as Minister to the United Kingdom.  (1853-1856)  John C. Breckinridge served as his Vice President.  The both belonged to the Democratic Party.
            March 23, The first Otis Elevator was installed in New York City at 488 Broadway or the E.V. Haughwout Building.  .  
June 1, The voters in the then Oregon Territory approved the resolution and elected delegates to a constitution.  The vote was 7,209 in favor of holding a convention to 1,616 against the proposal. 
            August, the first Constitutional Convention of Oregon was held.
            September 18, The Oregon Constitution was created.
            November 9, The Oregon Constitution was ratified.

            James Buchanan served as President of the United States.  John C. Breckinridge served as Vice President.
            The USS Niagara and the HMS Agamemnon laid the first trans Atlantic telegraph cable.  The first communications occurred on August 16, of this year.
            Twelve charter members organized the First Baptist Church in Amity, Oregon. The church building was built in 1870.  The Amity Church is a member of the Columbia Baptist Conference.
            James Buchanan served as President of the United States.  John C. Breckinridge served as Vice President.
         February 14, Oregon became the 33rd state in the Union.
            August 16, Carl Gustav Boberg was a Swedish poet, writer, and elected official, best known for writing the Swedish language poem of "O Store Gud" from which the English language hymn "How Great Thou Art" is derived.  He died on January 17, 1940.
            Moses Farmer lit the parlor of his home at 11 Pearl St in Salem, Massachusetts with incandescent lamps, the first house in the world to be lit by electricity.

            James Buchanan served as President of the United States.  John C. Breckinridge served as Vice President.             March 31, Rodney "Gipsy" Smith was born on this day.  He was a British evangelist who conducted evangelistic campaigns in the United States and Great Britain for over 70 years.
            November 6, Abraham Lincoln, who had declared "Government cannot endure permanently half slave, half free..." is elected president, the first Republican, receiving 180 of possible 303 electoral votes and 40 percent of the popular vote.
            December 20, South Carolina secedes from the Union.  Followed within two months by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. 
            December, The Oregonian started publishing newspapers in Portland.
            The first attempt to maintain a Baptist church in Portland did not prosper and only three members remained.  With the hope of reviving the church, the Willamette Association appealed to the American Baptist Home Mission Society to place a missionary in the field.  In response to this request Dr. Samuel Cornelius, was sent to labor in Portland,  He arrived in June and in August 31st, the First Baptist Church of Portland was reorganized with 12 members and regular services were conducted in a rented hall on First Street.  Dr. Cornelius was elected pastor and Josiah Failing and S.W. Williams were chosen deacons.  Click here to read a detailed account.
            The population of Portland was now 2,917.
            A mass exodus of immigrants occurred from Sweden. 
            The words to the hymn "Jesus Loves Me" were written in this year by Anna B. Warner.  The music was composed by William B. Bradbury in 1862.  The stanzas 2 & 3, were composed by David R. McGuire 1929-1971. "One of the most profound hymns ever written". -- Rev. Rick Mathews on 7-8-2004.

            James Buchanan served as President of the United States.  John C. Breckinridge served as Vice President.
February 9, The Confederate States of America is formed with Jefferson Davis, a West Point graduate and former U.S. Army officer, as president.
            March 4, Abraham Lincoln was sworn in as the
16th President of the United States.  Prior to the presidency he was a U.S. Representative from Illinois.  Hannibal Hamlin served as Vice President until March 4, 1865.  They belonged to the Republican Political Party. 
April 12-13, At 4:30 am, Confederates under General Pierre Beauregard opened fire with 50 cannons upon Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina.  The Battle of Fort Sumter was the bombardment and surrender of Fort Sumter.  This action started the American Civil War.   See the year 1865. View a Web Site showing a Civil War Time line.
            April 14, Fort Sumter after its capture showing damage from the Rebel bombardment of over 3000 shells and now flying the Rebel (Confederate Army) "Stars and Bars."
            July 21, The first major battle of the Civil War was fought at Manassas which if part of Prince William County, Virginia.  It was also known as the Battle of Bull Run.
           A church building The First Baptist Church (American Baptist) was started on the corner of Fourth and Alder.
           The music to the hymn "Holy, Holy, Holy," was written by John B. Dykes.  The words were written in 1826 by Reginald Heber.

Abraham Lincoln served as President of the United States.  Hannibal Hamilin was his Vice President.
         January, the First Baptist Church on the corner of Fourth and Alder was dedicated as a partial completion.  The basement was finished so that it could be occupied for religious services.  Dr. Samuel Cornelius continued as pastor.  (Return to 1876).
November 19, William Ashley "Billy" Sunday was born on this day.  He was an American athlete who, after being a popular outfielder in baseball's National League (He played his debut on May 22, 1883 for the Chicago White Stockings and played his last game on October 4, 1890 for the Philadelphia Phillies) and during the 1880's, became the most celebrated and influential American evangelist during the first two decades of the 20th century.  He died on November 6, 1935.
           Although not strictly a hymn, the strains of "Taps" are probably the most recognizable twenty-four notes in our country's musical history. The eloquent and haunting melody has drifted over the graves of soldiers since it was played by a lone bugler on a Civil War battlefield in 1862. Click here to hear the music and read the history of the most noted twenty-four notes.
            November 27, Adelaide (Sarah) Addison Pollard was born in Bloomfield, Iowa.  She was the author of over 100 hymns and gospel songs. Her most famous one being. "Have Thine One Way, Lord."  She died on December 20, 1934 in New York City.
            December 13, The Battle of Fredericksburg was fought on this date.  It marked another unsuccessful attempt by the Union army to move south against the Confederate capital at Richmond.  This failure stands out among other such setbacks because of the overwhelming nature of the Federal defeat.

Abraham Lincoln served as President of the United States.  Hannibal Hamilin was his Vice President.
         February 17, International Committee for the Red Cross met for the first time.  It was originally know as the International Committee for Relief to The Wounded.
            March 30, President Abraham Lincoln read Proclamation 97, appointing a Day of National Humiliation, Fasting and Prayer, on April 3, an executive order signed by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln.
            June 4, See a report from the Mariners' church in New York City.
            July 1-3, American Civil War:  Union forces under General George G. Mede turn back a Confederate invasion by General Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg, the largest battle of the war (28,000 Confederate casualties, 23,000 Union).  
            October brought about the International Committee for the Red Cross conference in Geneva, Switzerland.
            October 3, President Lincoln proclaims a national Thanksgiving (United States) day to be celebrated the final Thursday in November.
            November 19, U.S. President Abraham Lincoln delivers the Gettysburg Address (Listen to a modern recording of The Gettysburg address on the Gettysburg Address Website) at the military cemetery, Gettysburg National Cemetery, in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.  
            November 19, - A quote on this day from President Abraham Lincoln, "Now we are engaged in a great Civil War testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure."
DecemberLincoln's Secretary of the Treasury decided on a new motto to engrave on U.S. coins.  Lincoln's involvement in this decision is unclear, but it appears quite probable that the expression, "In God We Trust," was in keeping with Lincoln's spiritual beliefs at the time.

Abraham Lincoln served as President of the United States.  Hannibal Hamilin was his Vice President.
January 5,  George Washington Carver was born.  He was an American scientist, botanist, educator,  and inventor.  He died on January 5, 1943 in Diamond, Missouri.
         September, Dr. Cornelius left the First Baptist Church.  At this time the their were 49 members.
            October 20, The first annual Thanksgiving Proclamation was issued by President Abraham Lincoln.
            November 8, Tuesday.  This was the date of the presidential election and Abraham Lincoln was elected by electoral college.  Andrew Johnson was his running mate
            Olaus Okerson, missionary in Minnesota and the Northwest came to America.
            See a page out of Harley Hallgren's note book telling about information he found having to do with Tax lots of the First Baptist Church.
            The Portland Water Company, a privately owned business, installed Portland's first fire hydrant in 1864.

            Abraham Lincoln served as President of the United States.  Hannibal Hamilin was his Vice President.
January 4,  The New York Stock Exchange opened its first headquarters at 10-12 Broad near Wall Street in New York City.
January 31, Congress (the House of Representatives) passed the 13th amendment to the Constitution - abolishing slavery in America.  It was passed by the Senate earlier in 1964.
March 4, Abraham Lincoln gave his 2nd inaugural address.  Andrew Johnson was his Vice President.  He was a Democrat who ran with Lincoln on the National Union Ticket /Party.
            March 8, William Henry Sheppard was born in Waynesboro, Virginia.  He was one of the earliest African Americans to become a missionary for the Presbyterian Church.  He spent 20 years in Africa, primarily in and around the Congo Free State, and best known for his efforts to publicize the atrocities committed against the Kuba and other Congolese peoples by King Leopold II's Force Publique.  He died in Louisville, Kentucky on November 25, 1927 at the age of 58.
            April 14, The Stars and stripes is ceremoniously raised over Fort Sumter.  That night, President Lincoln and his wife Mary went to see the play "Our American Cousin" at Ford's Theater in Washington D.C.  At 10:13 pm, during the third act of the play, John Wilkes Booth shot the president in the head.  Doctors attend to the president in the theater then move him to a house across the street.  He never regained consciousness.  Click Here to view a Web Site on President Lincoln.  Vice President Andrew Johnson assumed the Presidency.  He was the 17th President.  He was a affiliated with the Democratic Party.  
            April 15, President Lincoln died at 7:22 in the morning.
            April 19, A funeral procession that carried the body of President Lincoln took place on Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington DC.
            April 26, John Wilkes Booth is shot and killed in a tobacco barn in Virginia.
            April 27, The Steamboat Sultana, while transporting, met with disaster on the Mississippi River.  It was the greatest maritime disaster in United States history. It's boilers were overtaxed and blew causing a horrific explosion, sending steam, splintered wood, and fire throughout the ship and onto the waters of the river.  The ship was carrying just released civil war prisoners of war plus other civilian passengers and crew.  The ships captain/owner was in financial trouble and was paid five dollars per soldier and ten dollars per officer each for the voyage and packed too many passengers into his ship to make more money.  The ships boilers were also in need of required maintenance.  The waters of the Mississippi were at flood stage and the current was stronger than usual so the ship made a zig zag maneuver up the river to compensate for the overloaded passengers so it could make the required forward speed.  Approximately 1,700 people died in this tragedy. See Images
            May 4, Abraham Lincoln is laid to rest in Oak Ridge Cemetery, outside Springfield, Illinois.
            May, Civil War Ends. Remaining Confederate forces surrender.  The Nation is reunited once again.  Over 620,000 American died in the war, with disease killing twice as many as those lost in battle.  50,000 survivors return home as amputees.  See the year 1861
            July 4, The first edition of, "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland," is published.   
            Portland's population was numbered at 1,800.  The skyline was changing, with stores and homes lining Front Street.

Andrew Johnson served as President of the United States.  The office of Vice President remained vacant for President Johnson's entire term in office..
May 5, The first observance of Memorial Day was at Waterloo, New York.  It was then known as Decoration day.  See 1868.
            May 16, Charles Elmer Hires invents Root Beer.  The drink was slow to catch on, but the Reverend E. Russell Conwell persuaded Hires to present his product at the 1876 U.S. Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia.  To make it stand out, he called his drink "the temperance drink" and "the greatest health-giving beverage in the world."
            July 10, The indelible pencil was patented by Edison P. Clark, North Hampton, Massuchetts.
            July 25, David Faragut appointed a the first Admiral in the U.S. Navy.
            August 19, First Baptist Church of Chicago, now known as Addison Street Baptist Church was organized.  They are located at 1232 West Addison Street, Chicago, Illinois, 60613, 773-935-2357
            Thomas O. Chisohm was born.  He wrote over 1200 hymns such as: "Living For Jesus," "O, to be Like Thee" and "Great is Thy Faithfulness."  See 1923

Andrew Johnson served as President of the United States.
         March 30, The United States and Russia signed a treaty for the purchase of Alaska for the sum of $7,200,000.  William H Seward, then Secretary of State negotiated the purchase.
            April 23, The first patent for a bent wire paper clip was awarded in the United States to Samuel B. Fay.  This clip was originally intended primarily for attaching tickets to fabric, although the patent recognized that it could be used to attach papers together.
            July 1, Canadian Independence Day.
            December 16, Amy Wilson Carmichael was born in the small village of Millisle in Northern Ireland to devout Presbyterians, David and Catherine Carmichael and was the oldest of seven children.  She served as a missionary in India, who opened an orphanage and founded a mission in Dohnavur.  She served in India for 55/56 years with out a furlough and wrote many books about the missionary work there.  She died in India in 1951 on January 18th. 
            December 22, Captain R. E. Jeanson of Gothenburg, Sweden,  converted to the Baptist faith and settled in New York in 1865.  Under his leadership, fifteen men and nineteen women met to found the "First Swedish Baptist Church of New York" on this Sunday.   Initially worshipping at the Mariner's Church near the docks in lower Manhattan, the congregation moved uptown to the Colgate Chapel on 20th Street in 1884.  Then, as the congregation grew and prospered, it bought its own building on 27th Street in 1893.  As time went by, the need for a Swedish language church decreased.  Swedish immigration slowed, many Swedes migrated westward, and descendents of the original settlers learned English as their native tongue.  Thus, in 1942 the worship language of the church was changed from Swedish to English, and the official church name was changed to "Trinity Baptist Church."  Trinity Baptist is a part of the Baptist General Conference now known as Converge Worldwide. 

Andrew Johnson served as President of the United States.
February 24,  Andrew Johnson became the first US President to be impeached.  He was acquitted in the Senate by one vote.
         April, construction work was begun on two railroads, to the south.  One on the east side, The Central Pacific and one on the west side, the Union Pacific.
            May 30, Decoration Day or now known as Memorial Day was observed for the first time on this date.  The date was chosen because it was not the anniversary of a battle.  The tombs of fallen Union soldiers were decorated in remembrance.  See 1866.
            December 9, The first red and green traffic light was installed in England.  It was operated by gas. 
            The words to "Beneath the Cross of Jesus" were written by Elizabeth C. Clephane in Scotland.  She was known as "The Sunbeam."

Andrew Johnson served as President of the United States.
March 4, Ulysses S Grant was elected the 18th President of the United States.   Previously he was the Commanding General of the US Army.  He affiliated with the Republican Party.  President Grant served 2 terms as President.   Scuyler Colfax served as the 17th Vice President.
         May 10, Officials of the Central Pacific and Union Pacific Railroads met in the State of Utah to celebrate the completion of the first intercontinental railroad or the First Transcontinental Railroad.  The completion of this rail line shortened the trip from coast to coast from six months to six days!  View the Golden Spike Web Site.
             Fanny Crosby wrote the hymn, "Near the Cross".
            Construction started on the Pioneer Court house.  It was built in stages between 1869 and 1903 and was first occupied in 1875.
            The Penny Farthing or High Wheel Bicycle was introduced by Frenchman Eugene Meyer and is now regarded as the father of the High Bicycle by the International Cycling History Conference in place of James Starley.  Meyer patented a wire spoke tension wheel with individually adjustable spokes.

Ulysses S. Grant served as President of the United States.   Scuyler Colfax was the Vice President.
         January, the First Baptist Church building in Portland, Oregon, was completed and dedicated "to the service of God and our Lord Jesus Christ."  The entire cost of the church building including improvement of the grounds was $12,500.00.
            Andrew Carnegie develops the first large steel furnace.

Ulysses S. Grant served as President of the United States.   Scuyler Colfax was the Vice President.
March 29, The first Surgeon General, John M. Woodworth, is appointed by President Grant.
            May 4, The first supposedly Major League Baseball game is played.
            May, John Edgren began to publish Zions Wäktare (The Watchman of Zion).  This marks the beginning of a denominational press which is now publishing "The Standard."
            October 8,  the Great Chicago Fire.
November 10, Henry Morton Stanley locates the missing explorer and missionary Dr. David Livingstone in Ujiji, near Lake Tanganyika, and greets him by saying "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?"
            Mr. & Mrs. Hans Shogren with their family arrived from Minnesota.
            Read a written historical account from the notes of Harley Hallgren about the Scandinavian Work that is beginning around this point in time.
            Edison perfects the "duplex" telegraph.
            Bethel Theological Seminary has beginnings.  John Edgren opens a department for Scandinavian theological students in the fall, at the Union Theological Seminary in Chicago with one student, Christopher Silene.  A second student Nicholas Hayland began in midyear.  See 1996

Ulysses S. Grant served as President of the United States.   Scuyler Colfax was the Vice President.
            March 1,  Yellowstone becomes the First National Park.  President Ulysses S. Grant signed a law establishing that Yellowstone would forever be "dedicated and set apart as a public park or pleasuring ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people."  It is located in the states of Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho.
            "I Need Thee Every Hour" was written by Annie S Hawks.
             "Whiter than Snow" the words to this beautiful hymn were written by James Nicholson in this year.  The words were taken from Psalms 51:7.  "Cleanse me with hyssop, and I will be clean; wash me, and I will be whiter than snow."
            The Shogren family were received by letter into the membership of the First Baptist Church.  Mr. Shogren was a carpenter and engaged in carriage making (both horse drawn and the smaller variety in which babies are pushed by their mothers) in Portland until the daughters, years later had become well established in their high class tailoring business.  Mr. Shogren was an uncle of Mrs. Emanuel Bjorkquist of Warren and she relates that he together with his sister, Mrs. Bjorkquist's mother, were baptized in Chicago in 1856 by the Rev. Gustaf Palmquist, one of the earliest of Baptist pioneer preachers. Click here to see a letter written to Harley Hallgren from Mrs. Bjorkquist on February 9, 1944.
            The first street car was introduced.  It was horse drawn and ran on First Street from Clarendon Hotel and the Railroad Station at F street South to Jefferson Street.  Portland had it's first horse-drawn streetcar.

Ulysses S. Grant served as President of the United States.   Scuyler Colfax was the Vice President.
         January 1, Willamette Falls Locks opens its gates for the first time to river traffic traveling along the Willamette, allowing safe portage around the 40-foot-high falls.
            February 4, George Bennard was born on this day.  He was an American hymn composer and preacher.  He is best know for composing the words and music to the famous hymn, "The Old Rugged Cross."  He died on October 10, 1958.
            March 4, Ulysses S. Grant was reelected a second term as President of the United States.  Henry Wilson served as the 18th Vice President.
            May 20, Jacob Davis & Levi Strauss.  Jacob Davis got the idea of making riveted pants in Reno, Nevada.  Jacob shared his idea with Levi, his fabric supplier in San Francisco, and asked him to be a patent partner and help with the large-scale manufacture of these innovative pants.  They received the patent for the first riveted work pants known today and blue jeans. (Levi's)
            August 2, a fire gutted much of Portland's business district and damage was estimated at $1,345,400.
            November 22, While crossing the Atlantic on the steamship Ville du Havre, their ship was struck by an iron sailing vessel and 226 people lost their lives, including all four of Horaito Spafford's daughters.  His wife, Anna Spafford survived the tragedy.  Upon arriving in England, she sent a telegram to Spafford beginning "Saved alone."  Spafford then sailed to England, going over the location of his daughters' deaths.  According to Bertha Spafford Vester, a daughter born after the tragedy, Spafford wrote "It is Well with My Soul" on this journey.
            December 16, Robert Jaffray was born.  He was a missionary to China, Indonesia, and several other countries, with the Christian and Missionary Alliance who served as the founding principal of the Alliance Seminary in Hong Kong and principal contributor and editor of the Chinese language Bible Magazine.  Jaffrary founded the first Chinese missionary society called the Chinese Foreign Missionary Union in 1929.  His life is chronicled in the biography by A. W. Tozer, Let my people go!: The life of Robert A Jaffray, (1947).  He died on July 29, 1945.
            Samuel Kaboo Morris was born sometime this year.  He was a Liberian prince who converted to Christianity around the age of 14.  Around age 18, he left Liberia for the United States to achieve an education and arrived at Taylor University in December 1891.  Morris's life has been the subject of five novels, over a dozen biographies, a 1954 film, and a 1988 documentary.  Taylor University has named numerous building, scholarships, and a society in his honor.  His story helped to inspire other people to go to Africa to preach the gospel.  He died on May 12, 1893 from complications of a respiratory infection.
            The book, "Around the World in Eighty Days," by Jules Verne, was first published.
            Nicholas Hayland is Bethel Seminary's first graduate.

Ulysses S. Grant was served as President of the United States.  Henry Wilson served as the Vice President.
May 20, Levi Strauss and Jacob Davis receive a U.S. patent for blue jeans with copper rivets.  The price was $13.50 per dozen.
            July 24, Mathew Evans and Henry Woodward patent the first incandescent lamp with an electric light bulb.
July 29,  Oswald J. Chambers was born on this day in Aberdeen, Scotland to devout Baptist parents. As he grew up he did not have plans to go into the ministry.  He studied at Kensington Art School and attended the University of Edinburgh, where he studied fine art and archaeology.  He traveled the world, stopping in Egypt, Japan, and America.  It was on one of his trips to America that he met Gertrude Hobbs. They got married in 1910 and affectionately called her "Biddy."  In 1911, he founded and became principal of the Bible Training College in Clapham in London.  In 1915, feeling called to the war effort (WW I), he applied and was accepted as a YMCA chaplain.  At that time he announced that the Bible Training College would be suspending operations for the duration of the war.  Chambers was assigned to Zeitoun in Egypt, where he ministered to Australian and New Zealand troops. He died in Egypt on November 15, 1917 as the result of a ruptured appendix.. He suffered in extreme pain of appendicitis for three days before seeking medical attention, refusing to take a hospital bed needed by wounded soldiers.
November 4, Democrats regain the U.S. House of Representatives for the first time since 1860.

Ulysses S. Grant was served as President of the United States.  Henry Wilson served as the Vice President.
April 15, Mackinac Island became the second national park.  Mackinac National Park lasted just 20 years.  In the 1890's the Army proposed to abandon Fort Mackinac, an action that would leave the park without a custodian.  Alarmed at the prospect, Michigan governor John T. Rich petitioned Congress to turn the park over to the state of Michigan.  This was done in 1895.  Mackinac Island State Park, reportedly the first state-operated park in this country to be officially titled a "state park," remains a Michigan state park to this day.
            July 19, St. Vincent Hospital opened.
            September, Good Samaritan Hospital opened.
            November 22, Vice President Henry Wilson died of a stoke.
            Siegfried Marcus was in the driver's seat when the world's first practical motor car the Marcus, made its historic debut on the streets of Vienna, Austria.  
            "First recorded work for Scandinavians in Portland was a mission conducted  by a tailor, Charles A. Sandstone."-Harley Hallgren
            The First Baptist Church reported to the Willamette Association that gospel work was being done among the Scandinavians under the leadership of a Brother Sandstone.  In this he was no doubt encouraged by the Shogren's.

Ulysses S. Grant was served as President of the United States.  The office of Vice President was left vacant until the election of 1877.
March 10, Alexander Graham Bell yelled those famous words, "Mr. Watson, Come here, I want to see you!"  The business of providing telephone service was off and running.
            "The Manual" of the First Baptist Church of Portland, was written.  In it we read:  "Such are the beginnings of this letter one which an account of the importance of the position it occupies and the purity of the Christian doctrines it seeks to disseminated, we may well hope will yet, "become a thousand".   Return to 1862
            Carl Gustav Boberg wrote the words to the beloved hymn, "How Great Thou Art."

Ulysses S. Grant was served as President of the United States. 
            March 4, Rutherford B. Hayes becomes President of the United States.  He was the 19th U.S. President.  He ran under the Republican ticket.  Previously he was the
Governor of Ohio.  William A. Wheeler served as the 19th Vice President.
            April 19, Ole Evinrude or Ole Evenrudstuen was born in Oslo, Norway.  He was a Norwegian-American inventor, know for the invention of the first outboard motor with practical commercial application.  In October 1881, his father emigrated to America, followed the next year by Evinrude, his mother and two siblings.  Three additional siblings were born in America.  The family settled on a farm in Ripley Lake near Cambridge, Wisconsin. At the age of sixteen, Evinrude went to Madison, where he worked in machinery stores and studied engineering on his own.  He became a machinist while working at various machinery tool firms in Milwaukee, Pittsburgh, and Chicago.  He died on July 12, 1934 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
            May 6, Realizing that his people are weakened by cold and hunger, Chief Crazy Horse of the Oglala Sioux surrenders to United States troops in Nebraska.
            July 9, The Bell Telephone Company was formed by Gardiner Hubbard who was Alexander Graham Bell's father-in-law.
            November 21, Thomas Edison invents the phonograph.
            By the end this year there were 3,000 telephones in service.
            Swedish Baptist Theological Seminary relocates from the University of Chicago campus to Morgan Park, Illinois.

Rutherford B. Hays served as President of the United States.   William A. Wheeler served as the Vice President.
            February 21,  The first telephone book was published in New Haven, Connecticut, by the New Haven District Telephone Company. It was one page long and held fifty names - no numbers were listed as the operator would connect you. The page was divided into four heading residential, professional, miscellaneous, and essential service listings.  See Web Site having to do with History of the Telephone.
            Local telephone service in Portland, was established by the American Telephone and District Telegraph Co.

Rutherford B. Hays served as President of the United States.   William A. Wheeler served as the Vice President.
            March 14, Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, in the Kingdow of Württemberg in the German Empire.  He died on April 18, 1955.
            May 25, Electric light arrived in Portland.
            June 12-14, organization of the Swedish Baptist General Conference of America, at Village Creek, Iowa.  John Ongman, moderator; A.P. Ekman, recording secretary; John A. Edgren, preacher of conference sermon.
            November 4, Will Rogers was born.  He was an American cowboy, comedian, humorist, social commentator, vaudeville performer, actor, and on of the best-known celebrities in the 1920's and 1930's.  Rogers died on August 15, 1935 with aviator Wiley Post, when their small airplane crashed near Barrow, Alaska.
            Henry Villard incorporates the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company and acquires the Oregon Steam Navigation Company.
            The Second Baptist Church developed under Rev. Addison Jones.  Today it is know as the Hinson Memorial Baptist Church.
            Portland's population was 20,000. 

Rutherford B. Hays served as President of the United States.   William A. Wheeler served as the Vice President.
            March 4, James Garfield, was elected the 20th President of the United States.  He served 200 days after taking office.  His presidency was cut short after he was shot by Charles J. Guiteau while entering a railroad station in Washington D.C. on July 2, 1881.  Prior to being elected President, he served as U.S. Representative from Ohio.  Mr. Chester A. Arthur served as his Vice President.
            December,  Rev. John Gray became pastor and remained three years during which time the church building was enlarged and refitted. (Second Baptist Church now known as Hinson Church)  See 1879
            Henry Villard starts construction on the South Side Line of the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company. 
            Fanny Crosby wrote the words to "Tell Me The Story of Jesus."  Fanny wrote over 8,000 hymns in her lifetime despite being blind.
            Canned fruits and meats appear in stores.
            Christopher Silene became the first missionary of the what is now The Baptist General Conference/Converge World Wide.

James Garfield served as President of the United States.  Chester A. Arthur served as the Vice President.
            January, Olaus Okerson and his family arrived in Portland.  They stayed with the Shogren family home to which they were welcomed and kept until located elsewhere.
            January 23, Pastor Okerson's first preaching service in the Pacific Northwest was held in the Episcopal Chapel on SW 5th near Oak St.
            March 4, James Garfield, took office as President of the United States.
            An account of his observation of the City of Portland by Rev. John Stadling of Stockholm, Sweden and writes in his book published in Sweden in 1863.  Also read in the same page, Rev. Stadling's account of religious persecution in Sweden.
            July 2, President Garfield  was assassinated.
            September 19, President Garfield died.
            September 19, Chester A. Arthur became President of the United States.  The office of Vice President was left vacant until the next Presidential Election.
            October 26, The Gun Fight at OK Coral took place in Tombstone, Arizona Territory.
            In this year, or a few years prior, Horatio Gates Spafford lost his four daughters during an ocean voyage tragedy in 1873, and prompted him to write the words to “It is well with my soul”.  Music by Philip P. BlissClick here to hear the hymn and read its complete history.
            Los Angeles is 102 years old with over 20,000 population.
            Astoria is the oldest town in Oregon.
            Portland had a population of 26,000.
            Salem had a population of 4,000.
            Oregon had a population of 160,000.               

Chester A. Arthur served as President of the United States.
            February 3, P. T. Barnum purchases the elephant Jumbo for his circus.
            April 3, Old West outlaw Jesse James is shot and killed by Robert Ford.
            September 4, The Pearl Street Station was the first commercial central power plant in the world.  It is located in Manhattan.
            September 5, The first United States Labor Day parade is held in New York City.
            Panoramic View of the City of Portland looking East.  Place mouse pointer over thumbnail picture and click the mouse button to see a full size Panoramic View.  It is a large file so please be patient.  

City of Portland 1882 - Looking East

Chester A. Arthur served as President of the United States.
         April 15,  The First Scandinavian Baptist Church held meetings in its own building at S.W. Sixth and CaruthersOlaus Okerson was our pastor until the church was organized.   
            May 25, The Brooklyn Bridge Opened.
            June 3, A Scandinavian Baptist church was formed in Seattle, the first on the west coast.
            October 17, Rev. Gustof Liljeroth baptized John Palmblad and two others in Johnson Creek at Gresham.  This was the first baptismal service for our church. 
            October 30, Robert Reynolds Jones, Sr. was born on this day. He was an American evangelist, pioneer religious broadcaster and founder and first president of Bob Jones University.  He died on January 16, 1968.
            Mrs. Liljeroth conducted the Sunday School.  Click here to read an account of the history of the Temple Baptist Sunday School.
            The Boy's Brigade was founded by William Alexander Smith to combine drill and fun activities with Christian values.
            Josephine Garis Cochrain set out to invent a dishwasher as she was tired of servants chipping he heirloom china.  In 1886 she earned a patent for her opening a factory 2on op prise at the 1893 Worlds' Columbian Exposition in Chicago .  She died in 1913.  "Cochran's Cresent Wash Machene company was soon to become Kitchen Aid.

Chester A. Arthur served as President of the United States.
Gustaf Liljeroth was our first pastor.
         January 1, First Scandinavian Baptist Church of Portland (now known as Temple Baptist Church) was organized by Gustaf Liljeroth.    Click here to see minutes of the meeting. 
            June 13, The world's first Roller Coaster opened in Coney Island, New York
            August 6, Kenneth Scott Latourette was born in Oregon City Oregon.  He was an Americfan pioneer in both Asian history and the global history of the church.  He was a Baptist minister who never married, was a professor at Yale FUniversity.  He was a close friend of students and non-academic church workers. He wrote History of China and History of Christianity.   He died on December26, 1968 in Oregon City, Oregon.  .  
            United States Electric Lighting and Power Company was hired to establish electric service in Portland.
            The Union Pacific Railroad gains access to Portland.
            Sir Charles Parsons invents the first practical turbine steam engine.  Parsons had the satisfaction of seeing his invention adopted for all major world power stations.
            Dr. Edgren's Theological Seminary (Bethel Seminary) moved to St. Paul under the name "The Swedish American Bible Seminary," beginning a four year period of independent existence.
            Note: From the records of Harley Hallgren  Hard times came in 1884.  Railroad financial collapse resulted in much unemployment.  Work on the Portland Hotel stopped.  Some of the church members moved out of town onto farms, some went back east; P.A. Johnson went to Chicago and Mr. and Mrs. Rose went to Michigan.

Chester A. Arthur served as President of the United States.
Gustaf Liljeroth continued to be our pastor.
March 4, Grover Cleveland was elected the 22nd President of the United States.  He ran under the Democratic Party.  Previously he was the Governor of New York.  Thomas A. Hendricks was elected Vice President. 
            May, Rev. Liljeroth went to Oakland, California where he organized a Scandinavian Baptist Church.  It is now known as Lakeside Baptist Church.
            July 14, Sara Elizabeth Goode became the first African American woman ever to earn a patent for her "Cabinet Bed"- a complete desk that folded up into a bed.  It was the precursor to the Murphy Bed patented in 1900.
            October 1, Nicholas Hayland, first graduate of Bethel Seminary, became our second Senior Pastor.  He served during the years  1885-1888.
            November 2, Jack Dempsey fought David Campbell; Campbell lost.  David Campbell became one of Portland's greatest Fire Chiefs.  See 1895
            J. P. Rasmussen founded a retail and wholesale paint business at Washington between First and Second.
            Recorded names of people at First Scandinavian Baptist Church services in this year; PH Carlson, Lydia Lindblom, Hanna _______?, Anna Moe, Annna? Pearson, Mary Moe, Ellen Nelson, Andrew Olsam, Axel Loaderholm, David Hagg, ______ Stenstrom, Rev. Hayland, Mrs. Hayland, 3 children, Anna Youngstrom, Bernard ________?.  
            Pastor Hayland preached to South Portland Catholics and Jews.
            Karl Benz built his first automobile.  It became the prototype for the first line of commercially successful cars in history.  He was fully convinced that the gasoline engine would replace the horse as the basic unit of transportation and spent much of his life bringing his belief to reality.  Overcoming poverty and ridicule, he built his first car in 1885.  He was the son of a locomotive engineer and was born in Karlsurhe, Germany, on November 25, 1885 Benz Tri-Car1844.  He received a patent for the on 25 January, 1886.  Admitting that he did not yet know how to design a steering linkage for two front wheels, he employed a single front wheel to guide he car.  Benz also put large drive wheels on the car to give the small engine a better power ratio.  The engine was a three quarter-horsepower, single-cylinder, four-stoke engine that he designed.                                                                                                                                                                                     

Grover Cleveland served as President of the United States.  Thomas A. Hendricks was his Vice President.
Nicholas Hayland was our pastor during this year.
            February, "The Swedish American Bible Seminary" moved to Stromsburg, Nebraska, remaining for two years as "The Central Bible Seminary."
            June 23, Women's Sewing Society was formed. Read a historical account and see a picture of this group taken in the early 20's by clicking on the Women's Sewing Society Link.  Read the Constitution of the Sewing Bee in Swedish and also translated to English.  Also see Harley's Notes.
            July 3, Nicholas Hayland was reelected preacher, unanimously, "received all the votes of those present,-eleven in number."
            October 28, The Statue of Liberty was completed and dedicated.  
     "Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled massed yearning to breath free.  The wrecked refuse of your teeming shore,  send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!"     These words are taken from a poem, which is written in a bronze plaque placed on the base of the Statue of Liberty.  The words on the plaque is called "The New Collosus," written by Emma Lazarus.  Return to October 28, 2011.  See Fun Facts about the Statue of Liberty.
            December 28, Josephine Garis Cochrain received a patent for the first commercially successful automatic dishwasher, which she constructed together with mechanic George Butters.  She was tired of her servants chipping her heirloom china, while washing them by hand.  She was able to find a company to manufacture her dishwasher.  The company was called Kitchen Aid.

            Dr. J. Pemberton sells his new drink Coca Cola, as a brain tonic. 
            The first lighthouse to use electricity was the Statue of Liberty. (

Grover Cleveland served as President of the United States.  Thomas A. Hendricks was his Vice President.
            Nicholas Hayland was our pastor this year.
    February 21, Labor Day was signed into law, Oregon was the first state to make it a holiday.
         August 1, a new building, The First Swedish Church of Portland on N.W. 12th near Glisan was erected and dedicated.
            August 27,  First Baptismal Service held in the 12th Street Church with Pastor Hayland baptizing Miss Anna Ljungstrom (sister of Mrs. Hayland), Miss Anna Person and Mr. David Hagg.
            April 12, First bridge across the Willamette River is open for traffic at Morrison Street.  The original Morrison Street Bridge was a wooden truss swing span bridge.  It was a wooden truss swing span bridge.  At the time the longest bridge west of the Mississippi River.  It was first a toll bridge (rates: horse drawn rig - US$0.15, team of horses - $0.20, pedestrian - $0.05 ) but went toll free in 1895.  The second Morrison was another swing bridge that was built in 1905.  It was not designed for automobile traffic. 
            A cable car line is begun to the heights in the west part of the city.
            The Armory in Northwest Portland was erected this year.
            Southern Pacific Railroad completes construction and opens service from San Francisco to Portland.
            Albina and Sellwood incorporated.
            Baron Gustaf Cederstrom painted the famous Swedish painting, "The Baptists."  To see an image in color of the painting and read about how the work came to canvas Click Here.
            Due to failing health J. A. Edgren terminated his work as dean of "The Central Bible Seminary."  Eric Sandell becomes teacher and acting dean of the seminary.

Grover Cleveland served as President of the United States.  Thomas A. Hendricks was his Vice President.
            Nicholas Hayland was our pastor this year.
         January, the Willamette River froze.  People walked on ice for three months.
            August 25th, the trustees of the First Scandinavian Baptist Church of Portland decided to sell the property on Caruthers Street to John P. Nelson.
            September 19, Levi A. Lovegren was born on this day.  He was a missionary for the Baptist Church in Cherry Grove, Oregon.  He died on October 6, 1983.  See 1951
            September 29, A Young People's Society was organized with a membership of seventeen.  L. Larson was the first president.
            Electric Interurban Railway is completed to Vancouver.
             First Portland Rose Show is held.
            Johanna Anderson, St. Cloud, Minnesota, the first Swedish Baptist foreign missionary sailed for Burma.
            George Eastman Patents the Camera.
             Bethel Seminary returns to Morgan Park, Chicago, again as a separate Swedish department of the Baptist Union Theological Seminary with Eric Sandell as acting dean.

Grover Cleveland served as President of the United States.  Thomas A. Hendricks was his Vice President.
            Uno M. Brauer became our third senior pastor.  He served during the years 1889-1890.
            March 4, Benjamin Harrison was elected the 23rd President of the United States.  He ran on the Republican Ticket.   Previously he served as US Senator from Indiana.  His Vice President was Levi P. Morton.           
March 31, Eiffel Tower in Paris inaugurated.  (Tour Eiffel) was the worlds' tallest building from 1889 to 1930. 
            May 6, The Eiffel Tower opened.
            November 11, Washington is admitted to the Union, becoming the 42nd State.
            December 28, The Swedish Baptist Conference of the North Pacific Coast was organized.  It later became the Columbia Conference in 1930.
            Canadian Pacific Railway establishes a line of steamers between this city and China.
            There was a fire in Forest Park in Portland that burned 400 acres.
            Fulton Park street car line started-the first electric trolley line in Portland.
            The Portland Hotel is completed.
            The United States was the largest Steel Producer in the world.
         Carl Gustaf Lagergren came to America from Sweden, and began his service of 33 years as dean of  Bethel  Theological Seminary.  He was the longest serving dean in the history of the seminary.

Benjamin Harrison served as President of the United States.  Levi P. Morton was his Vice President.
            Uno M. Brauer was our pastor this year.
         February 28, The Cedarhome Baptist Church in Stanwood, Washington was organized.
            September 25, Sequoia became the 2nd US National park after Mackinac Island was turned over to the state of Michigan on March 2, 1895.  Sequoia is located in the southern Sierra Nevada east of Visalia, California..  The park contains Mount Whitney, which is the highest mountain in the contiguous United States, at 14,505 feet above sea level.
            October 1, The U.S. Congress signed a bill making General Grant's Grove, Sequoia, and Yosemite the third, fourth, and fifth National Parks.  General Grants National Park was Disbanded on March 4, 1940 and Incorporated into Kings Canyon National Park, which set the above named parks back one number in order.
            October 23, Henrietta Cornelia Mears was born on this day.  She was a Christian educator and author who had a significant impact on evangelical Christianity in the 20th century.  Miss Mears also founded Gospel Light, a publishing company, and Forest Home, a Christian conference center.  Among the many she influenced were Bill Bright and his wife Vonette, and Billy Graham.  Henrietta Mears died on March 19, 1963.
            The city's cable car line began service to the Portland Heights.
            August, Erickson opens the Nine Bar Saloon at Burnside Street between Second and Third Avenues.
            Taxi (hack) rates, for immediate use, one person, not over one mile=50 cents.
            Population of City of Portland 72,357.
            U.S. National Bank was organized.
            The Columbia paddle wheeler Bailey Gatzert, the first overnight passenger vessel on the river, was built.  Both the fastest-at more than 20 miles per hour-and the most elegantly appointed, she sets the standard for passenger sternwheelers to come.

Benjamin Harrison served as President of the United States.  Levi P. Morton was his Vice President.
            Rev. August Westerberg was our fourth senior pastor. He served during the years 1891 - 1893.
            July 6, East Portland and Albina consolidated with Portland.  Previously East Portland and Albina were  historical cities before they were made part of the city .
            The Madison Bridge opened. The original bridge was replaced twice and is now known as the Hawthorne Bridge.
            A machine invented this year made mass production of the Fig Newton possible.
            The game of Basket Ball was invented by Dr. James Naismith to condition young athletes during the winter.  It consisted of peach baskets and a soccer style ball.

Benjamin Harrison served as President of the United States.  Levi P. Morton was his Vice President.
            Rev. August Westerberg was our pastor.
         January 1, the immigration station opens at Ellis Island.
            January 14, Martin Niemöller was born in Lippstadt, German Empire.  He was a German anti-Nazi theologian and Lutheran pastor.  For his opposition to the Nazis' state control of the churches, Niemöller was imprisoned in Sachsenhausen and Dachau concentration camps from 1937 to 1945.  He is best known for his statement, "First they came..."  He died on March 6, 1984 in Wiesbaden, West Germany.
            January 20, The first public game of basketball was played in Springfield, Massachusetts.  Other reports state the first game was played on March 11, of this year at the Armory Hill YMCA.  Basketball was first played in the Olympic games in 1936 in Berlin, when the USA beat Canada 19-8 for the gold medal.  The game was played outdoors, in the mud and rain, on a tennis court.  

            May, the church voted to withdraw from North Pacific Coast (Columbia) Conference.
            April 15, Corrie ten Boom was born on this day.  She was a Dutch Christian Holocaust survivor who helped many Jews escape the Nazis during World War II.  In December, 1967, Corrie was honored as one of the "Righteous Among the Nations" by the State of Israel.  In 1970, Corrie ten Boom co-wrote her autobiography, The Hiding Place, released in 1971 and which was made into a movie of the same name two year later starring Jeanette Clift as Corrie.  We had the privilege of having Corrie as the guest speaker at Temple on Easter Sunday evening  April 10, 1977.  She died on April 15, 1983.  A tree was planted in her honor at the Holocaust Museum in Jerusalem.
            June 20, The last day horses were used to pull streetcars in Portland.
            October 26, Westminster Presbyterian Church at 1624 NE Hancock, in Portland, was organized.
            November 8, Grover Cleveland was elected president of the United States.  He was the 22nd and 24th elected President.  In 1988 he won the popular vote but lost in the electoral college.
            First Baptist Church-(White Temple) on S.W. 12th and Taylor has cornerstone laid for new building.
            The Pledge of Allegiance was written this year by Francis Bellamy.
            The Baptist Union Theological Seminary, of which the Swedish Baptist Seminary was a department, becomes affiliated with the University of Chicago Divinity School.

Benjamin Harrison served as President of the United States.  Levi P. Morton was his Vice President.
Rev. John Olander was pastor.  Rev. Olander was our fifth senior pastor.  He served during the years 1893-1894.
            March 4, Grover Cleveland was elected the 24th President of the United States.  He was also the 22nd President and was elected for another term.   He ran on the Democratic Ticket.  Adlai Stevenson I served as his Vice President.
            Erik Hjalmar East felt the call of God to go the Foreign Field.
            Union Station is an improvement of this year.
            There was an amendment to the Constitution proposed to rename the U.S. the "United States of the Earth."

Grover Cleveland served as President of the United States.  Adlai Stevenson was the Vice President.
Andrew Johnson was interim pastor during the time we did not have a senior pastor.
            February 3, Norman Rockwell was born in New York City.  He was a 20th-century American painter and illustrator.  His works enjoy a broad popular appeal in the United stares for their reflection of American culture.  Rockwell is most famous for the cover illustrations of everyday life scenarios he created for the Saturday Evening Post magazine for more than four decades.  He died at Stockbridge, Massachusetts on November 8, 1978.
            June 6, The Willamette River crested at 33 feet, causing the worst flood in Portland's history.
            July 8, The new building for The First Baptist Church of Portland was dedicated.  The church was sometimes referred to as the White Temple because of the color of its exterior stone work. It was then located at SW 12th and Taylor.  It is located now at 909 SW 11th Ave. 
            November, Rev. David Oberg was elected pastor.  Rev. Oberg was our sixth senior pastor.  He served from 1894 to 1896.
            First Burnside Bridge opened.  See 1926
            First Congregational Church building completed at Park and Madison.
            July 8, The new building for The First Baptist Church of Portland was dedicated.  The church was sometimes referred to as the White Temple because of the color of its exterior stone work. It was then located at SW 12th and Taylor.  It is located now at 909 SW 11th Ave. 
         December 29, The name "First Scandinavian Baptist Church of Portland" was changed to "The First Swedish Baptist Church."  
            See Tax Lot information on Caruthers Street Church.

            Grover Cleveland served as President of the United States.  Adlai Stevenson was the Vice President.
            Rev. David Oberg was our pastor.
         February 26, David Campbell became 1st assistant to the Portland Fire Chief.
            June, the conference name was changed to the Swedish Baptist Conference.
            June 1, David Campbell became Portland's Fire Chief.  See 1885.
            July 4, America the Beautiful was first published in "The Congregationalist."  The poem was written by Katharine Lee Bates.
            Present City Hall completed.  The first steel frame, fireproof structure in the city.
            Astoria's railroad work started.  An Andrew B. Hammond enterprise.
            Ignaz Schwinn created Arnold, Schwinn and Company and started to make bikes.
            The Philadelphia Bourse Building, the first commodities exchange in the United States, was completed.  The Building is located adjacent to Philadelphia's historic Independence Mall (directly across the Mall from The Liberty Bell Center)  The building was one of the first steel-framed buildings to be constructed.  The concept of the Bourse,  meaning a place of exchange, was bought to Philadelphia in 1890 by George E. Bartol, a prosperous Philadelphia grain and commodities exporter.  It was modeled from the great Bourse in Hamburg, Germany.

Grover Cleveland served as President of the United States.  Adlai Stevenson was the Vice President.
            Rev. David Oberg was our pastor.  He resigned the pastorate sometime during this year.  Alex Vester was our interim pastor during the time we were waiting for a new senior pastor.
            Sylvester Pennager was the Mayor of Portland.  See website for complete list of the mayors of the City of Portland.
            January 4, Utah received statehood.  It was the 45 state to receive statehood into the union.  The Capital is located in Salt Lake City.
            March 14, The Sutro Baths were opened to the public as the world's largest indoor swimming pool establishment.  The baths were built on the western side of San Francisco by wealthy entrepreneur and former mayor of San Francisco (1894-1896) Adolph Sutro.  Eventually, the baths were converted into an ice skating rink until 1964 when the property was sold to developers for a planned high-rise apartment complex.  A fire in 1966 destroyed the building while it was in the process of being demolished.
            April 6, The opening ceremonies of the first modern Olympic Summer Games were held in Athens, Greece.
            May 22, Alfred D. Nobel died, leaving a fund of over eight million dollars.
            May 26, Charles Dow publishes the first edition of the Dow Jones Industrial Average.
            The Jewish War Veterans was established.  It is the oldest veterans group in the United States.  It has an estimated 37,000 members.

            Grover Cleveland served as President of the United States.  Adlai Stevenson was the Vice President.
Alex Vester was interim pastor until a new pastor arrives.
            February 27, Marian Anderson was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  She was an African-American contralto and one of the most celebrated singers of the twentieth century.  Music critic Alan Blvth said "Her voice was a rich, vibrant contralto of intrinsic beauty."  Most of her singing career was spent performing in concert and recital in major music venues and with famous orchestras throughout the United States and Europe between 1925 and 1965.  Marian was the eldest of the three Anderson children.  Her two sisters, Alice (later spelled Alyse) and Ethel, also became singers.  Ethel married James DePriest and their late son, James Anderson DePriest was a noted conductor. Before James Anderson DePriest died on February 8, 2013, he was conductor of the Oregon Symphony Orchestra. Marian died in Portland, Oregon of congestive heart failure on April 8, 1993 at the home of her nephew James DePriest at the age of 96.
            March 4, William McKinley succeeds Grover Cleveland as President of the United States.  President McKinley ran on the Republican ticket.  Previously he served as Governor of Ohio.  Garret Hobart was his Vice president until November 21, 1899 when he died at the age of 55.
            April 3, Rev. Charles Asplund was called to be our seventh Senior Pastor.  He served from 1897 to 1902.
            April 21, A.W. Tozer was born on this date.  His full name was Aiden Wilson Tozer.  He was a Christian pastor, preacher, author, magazine editor, Bible conference speaker, and spiritual mentor.  He died on May 12, 1963.  Read some of Tozer's Quotes.
            July 17, The Klondike Gold Rush begins when the first successful prospectors arrive in Seattle.
            September 1, The Boston subway opens, becoming the first underground metro in North America.
            October 2, Bud Abbott, American actor of Abbott and Costello was born.

            William McKinley served as President of the United States.  Garret Hobart was the Vice President.
            Rev. Charles Asplund was our pastor.
January 1, New York City annexes land from surrounding counties, creating the City of Greater New York.  The city is geographically divided into five boroughs: Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, The Bronx and Staten Island.
            February 15, Battleship Maine explodes in Havana's harbor, with crew of 266 killed.
            March 12, Battleship Oregon leaves San Francisco, around the tip of South America for Florida.
            April 13, The church Ladies' Mission Circle was organized to promote interest in home and foreign missions.
            April 25, United States declares war on Spain.
            May 22, Battleship Oregon arrives off Florida.  
            July 7, The United States annexes the Hawaiian Islands.
            September, Two men met in a YMCA hotel in Boscobel, Wisconsin. Discovering each other to be a Christian, they held their evening devotions together.  This was the start of the International Organization called the Gideons.  Gideons International is an evangelical Christian organization dedicated to distributing copies of the Bible in over 94 languages in 194 countries of the world, most famously in hotel and motel rooms.  The organization was founded in 1899 in Janesville, Wisconsin, as a early American parachurch organization dedicated to Christian evangelism.  It began distributing free Bibles, the work is chiefly known for, in 1908, when the first Bibles were placed in the rooms of the Superior Hotel in Superior, Montana.
            Nearly 79 million Gideon Scriptures were given out in 2009.  Close to 1.7 billion have been distributed since 1908.
            Gideons International is headquartered in Nashville, Tennessee, USA.
            November 29, C. S. Lewis, British author was born in Belfast, Ireland.  Clive Staples Lewis was known to his friends and family as "Jack," was a novelist, poet, academic, medievalist, literary critic, essayist, lay theologian and Christian apologist.  He was known for both his fictional work, especially The Screwtape Letters, the Chronicles of Narnia and the Space Trilogy and his nonfiction, such as Mere Christianity, Miracles and The Problem of Pain.  He died on November 22, 1963 at the age of 64 in Oxford, England.
            December 10, The Treaty of Paris is signed, ending the Spanish-American War.
            December 17, The Oregon Historical Society was organized on this date. 
            A separate conference in Oregon that our church was a member of was established.  The conference name was then the Oregon Swedish Conference.
            Sellwood annexed to Portland.
            Astoria's railroad completed.
            William McKinley served as President of the United States.  Garret Hobart was the Vice President.   
            Rev. Charles Asplund was our pastor.
            March 2, Mount Rainier National Park was established.
            November 21, Garret Hobart, the Vice President of the United States died.  The office of Vice President was vacant until March 4, 1901
            December 22, Dwight L. Moody, American evangelist died.  He was born in 1837.
            Rev. G. A. Osbrink became the first Oregon Conference Missionary.
            E. Henry Wemme owns the first and only automobile in Portland.  It was a Stanley Steamer.
            The music to "Finlandia" was written by Jean Sibelius and was used for the music to several hymns including, "Be Still My Soul".  See 1752
            Gideons International was founded this year.  Read a document - Who Are the Gideons?

            William McKinley served as President of the United States.   
            Rev. Charles Asplund was our pastor.
            January 3, The United States Census estimated the country's population was 70 million.
            February 14, Pastor Nicholas Hayland, our 2nd pastor and 1st graduate of John Edgren's Theological Seminary, (Bethel) passed away, in Tacoma, Washington.
            April 30, Hawaii becomes an official U.S.Territory.
            November 6, U.S. presidential election, incumbent William McKinley is reelected by defeating Democrat challenger William Jennings Bryan.
            Population in Portland - 90,426.
            1900-1914, 14 million immigrants pass through the US customs inspection station at Ellis Island in New York City.
            The Baptist General Conference is incorporated in Illinois.

            William McKinley served as President of the United States.
            Rev. Charles Asplund was our pastor.
January 1, The world celebrates the beginning of the 20th century.
            March 4, United States President William McKinley begins his 2nd term.  Theodore Roosevelt is sworn in as Vice President of the United States.
            April 25, New York State becomes the first to require automobile license plates.  At first, plates were not government issued in most jurisdictions and motorists were obliged to make their own. 
            August 29,  Olaus Okerson, died in McMinnville, Oregon.
            September 2,  U.S. Vice President Theodore Roosevelt utters the famous phrase, "Speak softly and carry a big stick" at the Minnesota State Fair.
September 6, American anarchist Leon Czolgosz shoots U.S. President William McKinley at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York.  President McKinley dies 8 days later (2:15 am on September 14.)
September 14, Theodore Roosevelt succeeds William McKinley as the 26th President of the United States.  Roosevelt belonged to the Republican Party.
December 10, The first Nobel Prize ceremony is held in Stockholm on the 5th anniversary of Alfred Nobel's death.
December 5, Walt Disney, American animator and film producer was born.

            Theodore Roosevelt served as President of the United States.  President Roosevelt served without a Vice President until the election in 1905.
            Rev. Charles Asplund was our pastor.  After Rev. Asplund resigned, Uno M. Brauer and Gordon Johnson served as an interim pastors until a new senior pastor became available.  
            January 1, The first college football bowl game, the Rose Bowl between Michigan and Stanford, is held in Pasadena, California.
            January 16, Eric Liddell, a Scottish runner was born. He was often called the "Flying Scotsman" because of his speed in track and his game of rugby.  He was born in Tianjin in North China, the second son of the Rev. and Mrs. James Liddell, who were Scottish missionaries with the London Missionary Society.  He represented Scotland in the 1924 Olympics which, were hosted by the city of Paris.  A devout Christian, Liddell refused to run in a heat held on Sunday and was forced to withdraw from the 100-meters race, his best event.  He died on February 21, 1945 in the Weihsien Internment Camp, China.  The movie "Chariots of Fire," portrayed Liddell's life.
            February 4, Charles Lindbergh, American Aviator was born.  He died in 1974.
            February 24, Gladys Aylward was born.  She was the evangelical Christian missionary to China whose story was told in the book "The Small Woman" by Alan Burgess, published in 1957.  In 1958, the story was made into the Hollywood film, "The In of the Sixth Happiness", starring Ingrid Bergman.  Miss Aylward was born of a working-class family in Edmonton, London.  Although she became a domestic worker at an early age, she always had an ambition to go overseas as a missionary, and studied with great determination in order to be fitted to the role, only to be turned down because her academic background was inadequate and the missionary training school to which she applied was convinced that it was not possible to learn the language at her age.  Her determination was such that, in 1930, she spent her life savings on a passage to Yuncheng, Scanxi Province, China.  The perilous trip took her across Siberia. Read a condensed story about Miss Aylward.  Miss Aylward died on January 3, 1970 in Taiwan at the age of 67.
            May 22, President Theodore Roosevelt designated Crater Lake a National Park.
            May 27, Peter Marshall was born on this day.  He was born a poor Scottish immigrant who became Chaplain of the United States Senate.  He died on January 26, 1949 of a sudden heart attack.  A movie was made of his life called "A Man Called Peter."
            August 22, Theodore Rosevelt becomes the first American President to ride in an automobile when he rides in a Columbia Electric Victoria through Hartford, Connecticut.
            October, Rev. J. A. Huggert became our eighth senior pastor.
            Rev. Gustaf Johnson succeeds Rev. Osbrink as missionary.
            The Oregon Journal newspaper started in Portland.
            The building, which houses the current Cairo Museum was built and inaugurated.  The Egyptian Museum of Antiquities contains many important pieces of ancient Egyptian history.  It houses the world's largest collection of Pharaonic antiquities, and many treasures of King Tutankhamen.
            Dr. Luther Leonidas Hill performed the first open heart surgery in the Western Hemisphere by suturing  stab wound in a young boy's heart.  The surgery occurred in Montgomery, Alabama.
    Theodore Roosevelt served as President of the United States.
            Rev. J. A. Huggert was our pastor.
            February 15, Morris and Rose Mitchom introduce the first teddy bear in America.
            April 19, Eliot Ness, American treasury agent was born on this day.  He died in 1957.
            May 2, Benjamin Spock, American pediatrician was born on this day.  He died in 1998.
            May 3, Bing Crosby, American singer and actor was born on this day.  He died in 1977.
            May 29, Bob Hope, English-born American comedian and actor was born on this day.  He died in the year 2003.
           June 16, The Ford Motor Company was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on this date.
            June 19, Lou Gehrig, American base ball player was born on this day.  He died in 1941.
            June 22, John Dillinger, American Bank robber was born on this day.  He died in 1934.
            July 23, Dr. Ernst Pfenning of Chicago becomes the first owner of a Ford Model A
            July 31, An armless swimmer, (Professor Clarence Lutz) swam across the Willamette River near the Morrison Bridge.  People were lined up on the Morrison Bridge to watch him when the part of the bridge gave way and tumbled people onto the boat houses below. There were many injuries and 3 died.
            September 15, Roy Acuff, American country musician was born on this day.  He died in 1992.
            October 1, The first modern World Series pits the National League's Pittsburgh Pirates against Boston Americans of the American League.  Boston won 5 games to 3.  Boston won the last 4 games.
            October 30, William Thomas Cummings was born.  He was a Maryknoll mission priest and U.S. Military Chaplain, recognized by Maryknoll as a martyr of the Philippines, one of the people to whom the quotation "There are no atheists in foxholes"  has been attributed.  It was probably said during the Battle of Bataan in 1942, which was one of the military actions in which he served.  He was Ordained on June 16, 1928, Father Cummings was sent to Manila to teach in 1940, after working in San Francisco for ten years.  On December 10, 1941, he was serving at Sternberg General Hospital in Manila when that city came under attack, and is reported to have worked tirelessly.  This was the first of many such episodes that made Father Cummings a legend in his own time.  He was known for his openness to helping soldiers of all faiths.  Father Cummings was taken prisoner with the men he was serving, continued to minister to them, and died a prisoner aboard ship on January 18, 1945.
            November 4, Watchman Nee was born in Swatow, China.  During his 30 years of ministry, beginning in 1922, Nee traveled throughout China planting churches among the rural communities and holding Christian conferences and trainings in Shanghia.  In 1952, he was imprisoned for his faith; he remained in prison until his death on May 30,1972 in Anhwei province, China.
            November 18, The Panama Canal Treaty is signed by the United States and Panama, giving the U.S. exclusive rights over the Panama Canal Zone.
            December 17, Orville Wright flies an aircraft with a petrol engine at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina in the first documented, successful, controlled, powered, heavier-than-air flight.
            The first box of Crayola crayons were made and sold for 5 cents. It contained 8 colors; brown, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet and black.

    Theodore Roosevelt served as President of the United States.
            Rev. J. A. Huggert was our pastor.
            January 2, James Longstreet, Confederate Civil War General died today.  He was born in 1821.
            February 29, Jimmy Dorsey, American bandleader was born today. He died in 1957.
            March 1, Glenn Miller, American bandleader was born on this day.  He died in 1944.
            March 2, Dr. Seuss, American children's arthor; "The Cat in the Hat," was born on this day.  He died in 1991.
            May 4, U.S. Army engineers begin work on The Panama Canal.
            May 5, Pitching against the Philadelphia Athletics, Cy Young of the Boston Americans throws the first perfect game in the modern era of baseball.
            July 1, The third Modern Olympic Games opens in St. Louis Missouri, as part of the World's Fair.
            July 6, Erik Wickberg, General of the Salvation Army was born today.  He died in 1996.
            July 21, The Trans-Siberian railway is completed.
September 26, Axel Anderson and Carl V. Anderson were baptized.
            October 27, The first underground line of the New York City Subway opens.  In March 1900, ground was broken in Manhattan for an electric-powered -US subway.  Twelve thousand men worked to build the subway for privately owned Interborough Rapid Transit Company (IRT) using the cut and cover method: rather than drilling and tunneling deep beneath the city, a trench was cut to accommodate a typically 55-foot wide and 15-foot high tunnel, the rails were laid and stations built, the finished work was enclosed in steel beams, and a shallow layer of fill and paving was placed over the trench.  When the subway opened, 150,000 people paid a nickel each to ride.  When the system was completed, it was the fastest city transportation system in the world.
             November 8, U.S. Presidential Election.  Republican incumbent Theodore Roosevelt defeats Democrat Alton B. Parker.
            November 24, The first successful caterpillar track is made (it later revolutionizes construction vehicles and land warfare.
            December 27, The stage play Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up premieres in London.
            December 31,  The first New Year's Eve celebration is held in Times Square, then known as Longacre Square, in New York, New York.

            Theodore Roosevelt served as President of the United States.
            Rev. J. A. Huggert was our pastor.
            February 4, Dietrich Bonhoeffer was born in Breslau, Province of Silesia, Prussia, German Empire (now Wroclaw, Poland).  He died on April 1945 at the age of 39 at the Flossenburg concentration camp, Nazi Germany.  He was a German pastor, theologian, spy, anti-Nazi dissident, and key founding member of the Confessing Church.  His writings on Christianity's role in the secular world have become widely influential, and his book The Cost of Discipleship has become a modern classic.  Apart from his theological writings, Bonhoeffer was known for his staunch resistance to Nazi dictatorship, including vocal opposition to Hitler's euthanasia program and genocidal persecution of the Jews.   He was arrested in April 1943 by the Gestapo and imprisoned at Tegel prison for one and a half years. Later he was transferred to a Nazi concentration camp. After being accused of being associated with the, he was quickly tried, along with other accused plotters, including former members of the (the German Military Intelligence Office), and then executed by hanging on 9 April 1945 as the Nazi regime was collapsing.
            March 4, President Theodore Roosevelt was elected a second term as President of the United States.  Charles W Fairbanks was elected Vice President.  Fairbanks, Alaska was named after him.
            April 12, the 12th avenue church property was sold.  Services were held in The German Methodist church from April to September.
            May 30, Oaks Park in SE Portland opened.  It is one of the oldest amusement parks in the country.
            June 1, President Theodore Roosevelt sent a telegraph from Washington declaring the Lewis & Clark Centennial Exposition open.  Portland hosted the Lewis & Clark Exposition which ran for 137 days and was held at Guilds Lake.  Two million people saw the exhibits.  See picture of the original Forestry Building.  See the year 1964
            Late Summer, Rev. Huggert had to resign the pastorate at our church because of ill health.
            September 17,  a new building, The First Swedish Baptist Church at N.W. Fifteenth and Hoyt was dedicated.
            "Be Thou My Vision", the words written in Ancient Irish, were translated to English by Mary Elizabeth Byrne.
            "His Eye is on the Sparrow", the words written by Civilla D. Martin.
            "In the Sweet By and By", the words and music written by Charles D. Tindley.
            Bethel Academy opens in Elim Baptist Church in Minneapolis with Arvid Gordh as principal.   

Theodore Roosevelt served as President of the United States.  Charles Fairbanks served as Vice President.
January 1, Eric Scherstrom took over the pastorate a our church.
February 4, Dietrich Bonhoeffer was born on this day.  He was a German Lutheran pastor and theologian.  He was also a participant in the German Resistance movement against Nazism, a founding member of the Confessing church.  His involvement in plans by members of the Abwehr (the German Military Intelligence Office') to assassinate Adolf Hitler resulted in his arrest in April 1943, and his subsequent execution by hanging on April 9, 1945, at Flossenbürg Concentration Camp, 23 days before the Nazis' surrender and the wars end.   His view of Christianity's role in the secular world has become very influential. 
            March 6, Victor Hasselblad, Swedish inventor and photographer was born on this day.  He died in the year1978.
            April 18, An estimated magnitude 7.8 earthquake on the San Andreas Fault destroys much of San Francisco, California, killing at least 3,000, with 225,000-300,000 left homeless, and $350 million in damages.
            June 7, The RMS Lusitania is launched in Glasgow.  It is the world's largest ship.
            August 22, The first Victor Victrola, a phonographic record player, is manufactured.
            October 25, The Peter Iredale, a four-masted steel sailing vessel en route to the Columbia River, ran aground on the sand north of Fort Steven's Campground on the Oregon Coast. The wreckage is still visible, making it a popular tourist attraction as one of the most accessible shipwrecks of the Graveyard of the Pacific.  The ship was sailing from Salina Cruz, Mexico, on or about September 26, 1906, and was bound for Portland, Oregon with 1,000 tons of ballast and a crew of 27, including two stowaways. 
            November 3, SOS becomes an international distress signal.
            Rev. Carl Axel Boberg succeeds Rev. Gustaf Johnson as Oregon Missionary.
            Mr. and Mrs. Lundberg were the custodians at the 15th and Hoyt church.
            Theodore Roosevelt won a Nobel Peace Prize for peace.

Theodore Roosevelt served as President of the United States.  Charles Fairbanks served as Vice President.
            Eric Scherstrom was our pastor.
            May 26, John Wayne, American actor was born on this day.  John, known as "Duke" died in 1979.
            May 30,  See the Announcement for the Yearly Banquet of the Sunday School 
            June 5, The Church at Warren was organized.
            July 16, Orville Redenbacher, American botanist and popcorn businessman was born on this day.  Mr. Redenbacher died in 1995.
            June 22, Barney Oldfield broke the world's circular track record at Irvington Park.  He was the world's greatest automobile racing driver at the time.
            September 29, Gene Autry, American actor, singer and business man was born on this day.  Mr. Autry died in 1998.
            The first Rose Festival was held in Portland.  An electrical parade was a sparkling feature of the first festival and was described as the most lavish spectacle of its kind on the continent.
            A.G. Sandblom came to the west coast as a missionary and continued until September, 1912.
            Rev. A. G. Sandblom succeeds Rev. Boberg as Oregon Missionary.

Theodore Roosevelt served as President of the United States.  Charles Fairbanks served as Vice President.
            Eric Scherstrom was our pastor.
            January 12, A long-distance radio message is sent from the Eiffle Tower for the first time.
            January 26, John A. Edgren, founder of Bethel Theological Seminary and the denominational press, passed away in Oakland, California.  He was besides being the founder served for sixteen years as director of the Seminary when it was in Morgan Park, Illinois.  A true man.  A loyal naval officer of the Civil War.  An earnest student and teacher.  A loving husband and father.  Faithful pastor and preacher,  An eminent theologian and author.  And above all a true and sincere Christian.   Taken from "Seventy-Five Years" - Bethel Theological Seminary pg 14.  See 1839
            January 24, Robert Baden Powell begins the Boy Scout movement in England, with the publication of the first installment of Mr. Powell's' book Scouting for Boys.
            March 22, Louis L’Amour was born in Jamestown, North Dakota.  He eventually wrote 89 novels, mostly western, over 250 short stories, and sold more than 320 million copies of his work. By the 1970's his writings were translated into over 20 languages.  Every one of his works is in print.  L'Amour died from lung cancer on June 10, 1988, at his home in Los Angeles.
            April 21, Frederick Cook claims to have reached the North Pole on this date.
            April 28, Oskar Schindler was born in Svitavy, Czech Republic.  He was an ethnic German industrialist, German spy, and member of the Nazi Party was credited with the saving the lives of 1,200 Jews during the Holocaust by employing them in his enamelware and ammunitions factories, which were located in occupied Poland and the Czech Republic.  He is the subject of the 1982 novel Schindler's Ark, and the subsequent 1993 film Schindler's List, which reflected his life as an opportunist initially motivated by profit who came to show extraordinary initiative, tenacity, and dedication in order to save the lives of his Jewish employees.  He was named Righteous Among the Nations by the Israel Government in 1963.  He died on October 9, 1974 in Hildesheim, Germany.  He is buried in the Jewish cemetery on the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem. The only former member of the Nazi party to be honored this way.  He and his wife Emilie were named Righteous Among the Nations by the Israel government in 1993.
            May 10, ~ Three years after her mother's death, Anna Jarvis held a memorial ceremony to honor her mother and all mothers at Andrews Methodist Episcopal Church.  She worked really hard to get Mother's Day established Internationally.  On May 9, 1914 President Woodrow Wilson proclaimed the second Sunday in May as Mother's Day "as a public expression of love and reverence for the mothers or our country."
            July 4, See Photo of Young People's Picnic.
            July 5, ~ The first known celebration of Father's day was held in Fairmont, West Virginia, where it was commemorated at William Memorial Methodist Episcopal Church South, known as Central United Methodist Church, Grace Golden Clatyon is believe to have suggested it to her pastor after a deadly explosion in nearby Monongah on December 6, 1907, killing 367 men.  In 1924, President Coolidge recommended that Father's Day become a national holiday.  President Johnson designated the third Sunday of June to be Father's Day in 1966,  It was not until 1972 that President Nixon instituted Father's Day as a national observance.
            October 1, Ford Motor Company unveiled the Model T.
            December 31, The Manhattan Bridge opens in New York City.
            Spokane Portland and Seattle Railroad completed to Portland.

Theodore Roosevelt served as President of the United States.  Charles Fairbanks served as Vice President.
Eric Scherstrom was our pastor.
January 1, Barry Goldwater, American politician was born on this date.  He died in 1998.
            February 1, George Beverly Shea, was born on this date in Winchester, Ontario, Canada. George was the fourth of eight children born to  Rev. Adam Joseph Shea, who was pastor of a Wesleyan Methodist Church--now Wesleyan Church--and his wife Maude Mary Theodora (Whitney) Shea.  George was a Canadian-born American gospel singer and hymn composer.  He was often described as "America's beloved Gospel singer" and was considered "the first international singing 'star' of the gospel world," as a consequence of his solos at Billy Graham Crusades and his exposure on radio, records, and television.  Shea himself has said that he became a Christian at the age of five or six, but made a re-dedication th Christ when he was 18:
        There were times when I needed to rededicate my live to the Lord Jesus.  When I was 18, my dad was pastoring a church in Ottawa, and I was feeling not too spiritual.   The church has having a "special effort," as they called it, for a week.  I remember that on Friday night Dad came down from the pulpit and tenderly placed his hand on my shoulder.  He whispered, "I think tonight might be the night, son, when you come back to the Lord."  What ever Dad did or said, I listened to him and respected him.  And, yes, that was the Night!  George accepted Christ again as his Savior at the Sunnyside Wesleyan Methodist Church in Ottawa, Canada  George Beverly Shea died on April 16, 2013 at the age of 104.
February 17, Geronimo, Apache Leader died on this date.  He was born in 1829.
February 24, The Hudson Motor Car Company is founded.
            March 4, William Howard Taft succeeds Theodore Roosevelt as 27th President of the United States.  James Sherman was elected Vice President.
            March 31, Construction begins on the RMS Titanic at Harland and Wolff Shipyards in Belfast, Ireland.
            April 1, Robert Preston Taylor was born.  He was a military officer (Major General) who served as the 3rd Chief of Chaplains of the United States Air Force.  A graduate of Baylor University in Waco, Texas, he notably served as a chaplain during World War II and was a Prisoner of War and a survivor of the Bataan Death March,  He began his tenure as chief of chaplains.  He died on February 1, 1997 at the age of 87.
            June 14, Burl Ives was born on this date.  He was an American actor, writer and folk music singer.  As an actor, Ive's work included comedies, dramas, and voice work in theater, television, and motion pictures.was an American actor, writer and folk music singer. As an actor, Ives's work included comedies, dramas, and voice work in theater, television, and motion pictures.  He died on April 14, 1995 in Anacortes, Washington at the age of 85.  .
            August 10, Leo Fender, American guitar inventor and manufacturer was born on this date. He died on March 21, 1991.
         August 19, Powell Valley (Haley) church was organized.
            September 28, Al Capp, American cartoonist was born on this date.  He died in 1979.
            November 11, The U.S. Navy founds a navy base in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

    William Howard Taft served as President of the United States.  James Sherman served as Vice President.
            Eric Scherstrom was our pastor
            March 8, French aviatrix, Raymonde de Laroche became the first woman in the world to be issued a pilot's license.
            April 20, Halley's Comet was visible from Earth.
            May 18, The earth passes through the tail of Comet Halley.
            May 31, The Union of South Africa is created.
            August 26, Mother Teresa was born on this day.  She died on September 5, 1997.
            October 1, Pastor Eric Scherstorm resigned the pastorate or our church.
            October 14, John Wooden was born in Hall, Indiana.  He was an American basketball player and coach.  Nicknamed the "Wizard of Westwood". he won ten NCAA national championships in a 12-year period --- seven in a row --- as head coach at UCLA, an unprecedented feat.  Within this period, his teams won a record 88 consecutive games.  He was named national coach of the year six times.  He was one of the most revered coaches and was beloved by his former players, among the Kareem Abdul-Jabbar and Bill Walton.  Wooden was renowned for his short, simple inspirational messages to he players, including his "Pyramid of Success".  These often were directed at how to be a success in life as well as in basketball.  He died on June 4, 2010 at the age of 99 in Los Angels, California.  One of his famous quotes was, "Talent is God given; be humble.  Fame is man given; be thankful.  Conceit is self given; be careful."

            Erick Scherstrom was our 9th Senior Pastor.
            Joe Lafayette Meek was born sometime during this year in Washington County, Virginia, near the Cumberland Gap.  Mr. Meek was an earlier pioneer in Oregon History.  He died on June 20, 1975 in Hillsboro, Oregon.
            Philip Forsander left for Morgan Park Seminary, to become a Pastor and Naval Chaplain.
            The Sewing Circle and Mission Circle were combined.
            In the spring, the blind evangelist, A J Freeman, and his daughter, Ester, held meetings which were used of God in the salvation of many souls.
            The population of Portland reaches 207,214.

            William Howard Taft served as President of the United States.  James Sherman served as Vice President.
Rev. Fredrick Linden was our 10th Senior Pastor.
January 18, Eugene B. Ely flew a Curtiss pusher aircraft and landed on the deck of the USS Pennsylvania, an armored cruiser stationed in San Francisco harbor, making the first time an aircrafts lands on a ship.  The ship was anchored in San Francisco Bay.  Ely landed on a platform constructed on her afterdeck using the first ever tailhook system, opening the era of naval aviation and aircraft carriers.  
            February 6, Ronald Regan, actor and 40th President of the United States was born on this day.  He died in 2004.
            March 24, Joseph Barbera, American cartoonist was born on this day.  He died in 2006.
            March,  Louis Chevrolet and a group of men working in a loft above a small shop on Grand Avenue in Detroit, Michigan, began assembling the first Chevrolet car.  See November 3, of this year.
            May 30, The first Indianapolis 500-mile auto race is run.  The winner is Ray Harroun in the Marmon 'Wasp.'
            June 15, Wilbert Awdry was born in Ampfield, Hampshire  England.   He was an English Anglican cleric, railway enthusiast and children's author.  Better known as the Reverend W. Awdry.  He was the creator of Thomas the Tank Engine.   He was the creator of Thomas the Tank Engine, the central figure in his acclaimed Railway Series.  Wilbert died on March 21, 1997 Redborough, Stroud, Gloucestershire, England at the age of 85.
            August 6, Lucille Ball, American actress (I Love Lucy) was born on this day.  She died in 1989.
            November 3, Louis Chevrolet co founded the Chevrolet Motor Car Company with William C. Durant.   Chevrolet officially enters the automobile market to compete with the Ford Model T.
            November 5, Roy Rogers, American cowboy singer and actor was born on this day.  He died in 1998.
            The Hymn, "Rise Up O Men of God," was written by William P. Merrill.

            William Howard Taft served as President of the United States.  James Sherman served as Vice President.
Fredrick Linden was our pastor.
January 1, The Republic of China, (the Island of Tawian) is established.  Not to be confused with mainland China, known as the People's Republic of China.
            January 6, New Mexico is admitted as the 47th U.S. state.
January 28, The church at Cherry Grove was organized.
            February 14, Arizona is admitted as the 48th U.S. state.
            March 1, Albert Berry makes the first parachute jump from a moving airplane.  Mr. Berry jumped from a Benoit pusher biplane.
            March 6, The first sale of Oreo Cookie was made from the National Biscuit Company to a grocer in Hoboken named S. C. Thuesen.  From an article from the New York Times Pg. B1, Tuesday, February 28, 2012.
            March 12, The Girl Scouts of the USA are founded.
            April 15, The "unsinkable" ocean liner Titanic sinks on maiden voyage after colliding with an iceberg; over 1,500 drown.  There were 706 survivors.
            April 20, Fenway Park, home of the Boston Red Sox, opens.
            May 5 - July 27, Stockholm, Sweden was host for the Summer Olympic Games.  At, 25, The United States won the most gold medals, while at 65, Sweden won the most medals over all.  American Jim Thorpe won the pentathlon and newly created decathlon.  He was disqualified after the fact but in 1982 was reinstated.  King Gustav of Sweden said, "You, sir, are the greatest athlete in the world," to which Thorpe replied, "Thanks, King."
            July 17, Art Linkletter was born on this day.  He was a Canadian-American radio and television personality and the former host of two long-running US television shows:  "House Party," which ran on CBS radio and television for 25 years, and "People Are Funny," on NBC radio-TV for 19 years.  Mr. Linkletter was famous for interviewing children on "House Party" and "Kids Say the Darndest Things," which led to a successful series of books quoting children. He died on May 26, 2010.
            August 9, On this date the Steel bridge in Portland over the Willamette River was open to automobile traffic.  It opened to rail traffic earlier in July.  The bridge was built to replace the aging original bridge built in 1888, which was a double-deck swing-span bridge.  The new bridge assumed the same name as its predecessor.
            September, Rev. August Olson succeeds Rev. Sandblom as Oregon Missionary.
            September 30, James Sherman, Vice President of the United States died in his home of a kidney disease.  The office of Vice President was left vacant until the next election in 1913.
            December,  Mr. and Mrs. John Milton went to Cherry Grove from Portland and bought a lot on First Avenue to build a hotel.  It was rushed to completion and ready for use in late January the following year. 
            Reed College opens at S.W. Eleventh and Jefferson.  The college was established in 1908.
            The Haley church was dedicated.  John Johnson was the first pastor from 1907-1920.
            The Theological Seminary  which was a department of the Divinity School at The University of Chicago terminated its support of Bethel Seminary.
            The hymn "The Old Rugged Cross" was composed by Rev. George Bennard 
            The first Swedish Baptist Church in Oregon, outside of Portland, was established in Cherry Grove.
            A. J. Wingblade succeeds Arvid Gordh as principal of Bethel Acadamy.

            William Howard Taft served as President of the United States.
Fredrick Linden was our pastor.
         February 1, New York City's Grand Central Terminal, having been rebuilt, reopens as the world's largest train station.
            February 3, The 16th Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, authorizing the Federal government to impose and collect income taxes.
            March 4, Woodrow Wilson was elected 28th President of the United States.  He belonged to the Democratic Party.  Previously he was Governor of New Jersey.  Thomas R. Marshall was elected Vice President.   
            March 13, David Livingstone, missionary and explorer, was born in Scotland.
            April 22, The Broadway Bridge was open for traffic.
            July 18, Red Skelton, American comedian was born on this day.  He died in 1997.
            December 23, The Federal Reserve is created by Woodrow Wilson.
            Woodrow Wilson becomes 28th U.S. President.
            Henry Ford develops the first moving assembly line.
            Seventh Street on Portland's West side renamed Broadway.

            Woodrow Wilson served as President of the United States.  Thomas Marshall served as Vice President.
Fredrick Linden was our pastor.
January 6, Danny Thomas, American singer, actor, and comedian was born this day.  He died in the year 1991.
February 12, Lincoln's Birthday, Washington, D.C., the first stone of the Lincoln Memorial is put into place.
            March 2, Captain G. W. Schroeder, in a sense the first Swedish Baptist, died in Brooklyn, New York.  He was nearly 93 years of age.
            May 13, Joe Louis, American boxer was born on this day.  He did in 1981.
            May 14, Woodrow Wilson signs a Mother's Day proclamation.
            May 29, The ocean liner RMS Empress of Ireland sinks in the Gulf of St. Lawrence; 1,012 lives are lost.
            June 28, The First World War started with the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand the Inspector of the Austro-Hungarian Army, and his wife, Sophie von Chotkovato during a parade in Sarajevo.
            July 11, Baseball legend Babe Ruth makes his major league debut with the Boston Red Sox.
            August 15, The Panama Canal is inaugurated with the passage of the steamship U.S.S. Ancon.
            August 15, The first modern red and green traffic lights are installed in Cleveland, Ohio.
            September 13, W.Ian Thomas was born in London, England. He joined the British Army in World War II,  He was decorated with the D.S.O. (Distinguished Service Order) and the T.D. (Territorial Decoration).  When the Germans surrendered, Major W. Ian Thomas went and took the flag of surrender.  After his service in the British Army, Major Thomas was probably best known as a Bible teacher, author and founder of both Capernwray Missionary Fellowship of Torchbearers (based at Capernwray Hall, England) and subsequently Torchbearers International (based in the USA).  He died at the just before his 94th birthday on August 1, 2007 in Estes Park, Colorado, USA.   ".....that I may know Him and the power of His resurrection......"  Philippians 3:10
            October 7, Joseph Patrick Kennedy Sr. marries Rose Fitzgerald in Boston.
            October 8, Robert Pierce was born.  He was an American Baptist minister and relief worker.  He is best known as the founder of the international charity organizations, World Vision International in 1950 and Samaritans Purse in 1970/  He died on November 6, 1978 in Arcadia, California.
            November 16, A year after being created by passage of the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, the Federal Reserve Bank of the United States officially opens for business.
            November 25, Joe DiMaggio, American baseball player was born on this day.  He died in 1999.
            The Portland Central Library moves to S.W. Tenth and Yamhill.
            Bethel Seminary moved from Chicago, to a new building on Snelling Avenue Campus in St. Paul merging with Academy as "Bethel Academy and Theological Seminary," the beginning of a school work owned and operated by the Baptist General Conference.  G. Arvid Hagstrom was elected president of the combined two schools.

            Woodrow Wilson served as President of the United States.  Thomas Marshall served as Vice President.
Fredrick Linden was our pastor.
January 25, Alexander Graham Bell made the first transcontinental phone call from Lower Manhattan to Thomas A. Watson in San Francisco.
January 12, The Rocky Mountain National Park is established by an act of the U.S. Congress.
            January 12, The United States House of Representatives rejects a proposal to give women the right to vote.
            January 28, An act of the U.S. Congress designates the United States Coast Guard, begun in 1790, as a military branch.
            May 6, Babe Ruth hits his firs career home run off of Jack Warhop who was a pitcher for the New York Highlanders/New York Yankees.
             May 7--British ocean liner Lusitania sunk by German submarine's torpedo, 1,198 perish.
            July 28, The United States occupation of Haiti begins.
            September 7, Former cartoonist John B. Grulle is given a patent for his Raggedy Ann doll.
            December 12, Frank Sinatra, American entertainer was born on this day.  "Ole Blue Eyes" died in the year 1998.
            Emanuel Hospital builds first building on Stanton Street.
            Boston Red Sox beat the Philadelphia Phillies (4-1) in the World Series.
            The Ford Motor Company opened an assembly plant at 2505 SE 11th Ave in Portland.  It was this year that Ford built its millionth car.

            Woodrow Wilson served as President of the United States.  Thomas Marshall served as Vice President.
Rev. Axel Tjernlund served as Interim Pastor. 
            January 1, read the Församlings Posten (Assembly News).  Our church news letter - written in Swedish.
            April, The light switch is invented by William J. Newton and Morris Goldberg.
            October 4,  Rev. Gideon Sjolander accepted the call to be our pastor.  He was our 12th senior pastor.
            A dedication of the opening of the Columbia Gorge Scenic Highway was held at Multnomah Falls.
            Bethel Kvinnoforbund (women's federation) is organized under the leadership of Mrs. Olaf Bodien.   

            Woodrow Wilson served as President of the United States.  Thomas Marshall served as Vice President.
Rev. Gideon Sjolander was our pastor.
            January 26, Louis Zamperini was born in Olean, New York.  Louis started out as a boy bigger kids picked on mainly because he only spoke Italian when he was growing up.  He took up boxing and became very good at it.  He became an Olympic runner and qualified for the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin, Germany.  He joined the Army Air Forces  and earned a commission of 2nd Lieutenant.  He was a bombardier in a B-24 Liberator.  During a search mission for a missing plane, the plane they were in crashed at sea.  The 2 remaining airman who survived were adrift at sea for 47 days until captured by the Japanese Navy.  He was sent to various prison camps and ended up at one in Northern Japan and remained there until the war ended.  He was given a hero's welcome when he returned to his home town.  He later married Cynthia Applewhite in 1946.  She became a born-again Christian while attending a Billy Graham Crusade in Los Angeles.  She finally talked Louie into going to hear Billy and he ended up accepting Christ as his personal Savior.  Louie remembered the constant prayers while drifting in the Pacific Ocean for that length of time.  He became a Christian inspirational speaker and ended up going back to Japan and sharing The Gospel to many of his captors.  He died on July 2, 2014 in Los Angeles at the age of 97.  Laura Hillenbrand wrote a story of Louie's life called "Unbroken."
            February 14, The Interstate Bridge to Vancouver is opened to traffic.
         April 2, President Woodrow Wilson appeared before The Congress of the United States and asked them to declare war on Germany.
            April 6, The United States entered the First World War.
            May 8,  Ken N. Taylor was born in Portland, Oregon.  His father was a Presbyterian minister.  He graduated from Beaverton High School in 1934 and enrolled in Wheaton College in Wheaton, Illinois.  He graduated from Wheaton in 1938.  He was an American publisher and author, better known as the creator of the Living Bible and the founder of Tyndale House, a Christian publishing company.
            May 29, John Fitzgerald Kennedy was born.  He was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.  He was the first president born in the 20th century.  He died on November 22, 1963.
            July 30, The Steel Bridge burned.  It was 3 years old.
            Shipbuilding increases 35%
            As roads and railways replaced the rivers as the major means of transportation, the last overnight passenger sternwheeler operating on the Columbia River is removed from service.

            Woodrow Wilson served as President of the United States.  Thomas Marshall served as Vice President.
Rev. Gideon Sjolander was our pastor.
            February 12, Eric Sandell, teacher at Bethel Theological Seminary for 22 years, passed away.
March 11,  The first case of the Great Influenza Epidemic was reported in Fort Riley, Kansas.  The disease would kill 20 million people worldwide.
May 8,  John Morrison Birch was born on this day in Landour, Uttarakhand, India.  He was an American military intelligence officer and a Baptist missionary in World War II who was shot by armed supporters of the communist Party of China.  Some politically conservative groups in the United States consider him to be a martyr and the first victim of the Cold War.  The John Birch Society, an American right-wing conservative organization formed 13 years after his death is named in his honor.  He died on August 25, 1945 in Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.
            October ~ The Spanish Flu hit Portland,Oregon.  The first death was a discharged soldier, Arthur Zik.  School, churches, streetcars were closed, no sneezing allowed.  From an article in the April 2020 issue of the NW Examiner, a local NW newspaper.
            November 7, Billy Graham was born on a farm in North Carolina.  He is an American evangelical Christian evangelist, who rose to celebrity status as his sermons were broadcast on radio and television.  Graham has been spiritual adviser to several United States Presidents and has met with 12, dating back to Harry S. Truman,  He has repeatedly been on Gallup's most admired man and woman poll, and is listed at number seven for the 20th century (taken in 1999).  He was ordained by the Southern Baptist Convention.  He has preached the Gospel in person to more people than any other person in history.  On August 13, 1943, he married Wheaton classmate Ruth Bell.  A saying he is noted for is, "The Bible says........"  This year, 2012, he will be 94 years old.
            November 11, at 11:00 PM, (11-11-11) The First World War ended.  The Armistice was signed in the "Forest of Compiegne," in France.  Also see this  World War 1 Website.
            Four immense steel plants are now building ships.  See Web page about the Portland Shipyards.

            Woodrow Wilson served as President of the United States.  Thomas Marshall served as Vice President.
Rev. Gideon Sjolander was our pastor.
         January, Temple Baptist Church celebrated its 35th anniversary.
            June 20, Roy Allen open a roadside root beer stand in Lodi, California, using a formula he had purchased from a pharmacist.   In 1920, Allen became partners with Frank Wright and the two combined their initials and called their product A&W Root Beer.
            The Young People's Society suggested that the church start a building fund. This matter was later taken up.  To see excerpts from the Business Meeting minutes for February 4, 1919,  Click Here.
            Bishop Festo Kivengere was born sometime during this year.  He was a Ugandan Anglican-Christian leader referred to by many as "the Billy Graham of Africa."  He played a huge role in a Christian revival in southwestern Uganda, but had to flee in 1973 to neighboring Kenya in fear for his life after speaking out against Idi Amin's tyrannical behavior.  Kivengere had been made a bishop of Kigezi and was among several bishops summoned to Amin's quarters.  Angry mobs called for their deaths.  Eventually, all were permitted to leave but one, the archbishop, Janani Luwum.  The others waited for Luwum to join them but he never came out.  The next day the government announced that Luwum had died in an automobile accident.  Four days later, despite government threats, 45,000 Ugandans gathered in the Anglican cathedral in Kampala for a memorial service honoring their fallen leader.  Kivengere did not attend the service.  Urged to flee by friends who said, "One dead bishop is enough,' he and his wife that night drove as far as their vehicle could take them and with the help of local church people in the hills they walked until the next morning brought them to safely across the border in RwandaAlso see another link about Bishop Festo.

            Woodrow Wilson served as President of the United States.  Thomas Marshall served as Vice President.
Rev. Gideon Sjolander was our pastor.
         January, the Oregon Conference was held at this church and a large number of delegates made a trip to Warren, Oregon, to dedicate the church there.
            July, Pastor Sjolander visits Sweden.
            Rev. Emanuel Björkquist becomes Interim Pastor while Pastor Sjolander was away from the pulpit. 
            July, Pastor Axel Tjernlund went to be with the Lord.
            August 3, Pastor Sjolander was granted 9 months leave of absence to visit Sweden.
            August 18, The Nineteenth amendment to the Constitution was ratified by the required number of states.
            August 26, Fourteen years after the death of Susan B. Anthony, women were given the right to vote in the United States by the Nineteenth amendment to the Constitution.
            October The Spanish Flu hit Portland.  The first death was a discharged soldier, Arthur Zik.  School, churches, streetcars were closed, no sneezing allowed.  From an article in the April 2020 issue of the NW Examiner, a local NW newspaper.
            October 31, the Deacon Board arranged a meeting to honor John Palmblad on his eightieth birthday.  Mr. Palmblad gave the church of $50.00 for the new church lot that the church expected to buy.  Reported by O.S. Rydman on November 20.
Rev. Emanuel Bjorkquist succeeds Rev. Sandblom as Oregon Missionary.
            Population of Portland reached 258,288.
            Bethel Seminary's name became "Bethel Institute."
            See a photo of the church choir.
            Bethel Academy and Theological Seminary becomes the Bethel Institute.

            Woodrow Wilson served as President of the United States.  Thomas Marshall served as Vice President.
Rev. Gideon Sjolander was our pastor.
            Rev. Emanuel Björkquist becomes Interim Pastor while Pastor Sjolander was away from the pulpit.
January, the church began to have a service once a month in English, for the benefit of those not understanding Swedish.  Gradually the shift to English services became a reality as the church's responsibility to minister to the neighborhood as well as the Swedish population was recognized.
            March 4, Warren G. Harding was elected the 29th President of the United States.  He ran on the Republican Ticket.  Previously he was the U. S. Senator from Ohio.  Calvin Coolidge served as his Vice President.
            April 21, John Stott (John Robert Walmsley Stott) was born in London, England.  He was an English Christian leader and Anglican cleric who was noted as a leader of the worldwide Evangelical movement.  He was one of the principal authors of the Lausanne Covenant in 1974.  In 2005, Time magazine ranked Storr among thee 100 most influential people in the world.  He died on July 27, 2011 in Lingfield, Surrey, England at the age of 90.
            September 6, The Peace Arch at the border of Canada and The United States near Blaine, Washington. and Surrey, British Columbia  was dedicated.
            September 13, The White Castle Restaurant chain opened in Wichita, Kansas.  It was the first of its kind on the U.S.
            October 19, American evangelist William R. "Bill" Bright was born on this day.  He was the founder of Campus Crusade for Christ, wrote the Four Spiritual Laws in 1952 and produced the Jesus film in 1979. He died on July 19, 2003.
            November 15, the church voted to purchase property at the east end of the Broadway Bridge near Interstate Ave on Larrabee Street.  Later the Interstate property was sold.
            November 27, The first program of radio entertainment ever put on the air in Portland was broadcast by the Portland Telegram on this date, from its offices in the Pittock block, operation under a temporary government permit.  The Telegram's Station's call letters were KEX, 239.9Meters, 1250 Kilocycles.
            Bethel celebrates it's 50th anniversary.

         Warren G. Harding served as President of the United States.  Calvin Coolidge served as Vice President.
            Rev. Gideon Sjolander was our pastor.
            February 5, DeWitt and Lila Wallace publish the first issue of Reader's Digest.
            February 8, President Warren G. Harding introduces the first radio in the White House.
            March 25, KGW opens the first radio broadcasting station and makes its first broadcast on this date.
            May 5, Construction begins on Yankee Stadium.
            May 30, The Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. is dedicated.
            November 4, Archaeologist Howard Carter and his men find the entrance to Pharaoh Tutankhamun's tomb in the Valley of the Kings in Luxor, Egypt.
            November 26, Charles M. Schulz, American cartoonist, creater of Peanuts was born on this day.  Schulz often touched on religious themes in his work, including the classic television cartoon, A Charlie Brown Christmas (1965), which features the character Linus van Pelt quoting the King James Version of the Bible, Luke 2:8-14 to explain "What Christmas is all about."  In personal interviews Schulz mentioned that Linus represented his spiritual side.  He died on February 12, 2000.
            December 12, Arthur Ray Hawkins was born in Zavalla, Texas.  He was the US Navy's 10th leading ace with 14 aerial victories to his credit.
            See photo of Pastor Sjolander's Bible Class.
            Bethel Seminary adds the Bible and Missionary Training School for Laity.
           Arvid Gordh succeeds Carl Gustaf Lagergren as seminary dean.

         Warren G. Harding served as President of the United States.  Calvin Coolidge served as Vice President.
Rev. Gideon Sjolander was our pastor.
            June, The Young People's Society celebrated their 35th anniversary.  The church was then called "First Swedish Baptist Church."  See a photo taken on the front steps of the the church at SW 15th and Hoyt Streets.
            August 2, President Harding died in San Francisco of some condition.  Some doctors feel it was a heart attack.  He had been ill for some time.  Mrs. Harding died the next year on November 21.
            August 2, Calvin Coolidge was sworn in as the Presidency of the United States.  The Vice President office was vacant until the next national election.  Vice-President Coolidge was in Vermont visiting his family home, which had neither electricity nor a telephone, when he received word by messenger of Harding's death.  He dressed, said a prayer, and came downstairs to greet the reporters who had assembled.  His father, a notary public, administered the oath of office in the family's parlor by the light of a kerosene lamp at 2:47 am on August went back to bed.  He returned to Washington the next day, and was sworn in again by Justice Adolph A. Hoehling, Jr. of the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia, to forestall the questionable authority of a notary public to administer the presidential oath.
            See a photo of "The Cheerful Helpers" Sunday School Class. 
            See a photo of  Sunday School Picnic, probably held on July 4th.
            See a photo of Men's "Berea" Sunday School Class.
            Thomas O. Chisholm wrote, "Great is Thy Faithfulness"  Return to 1866
A.H. Johnson became the Missionary of Washington Swedish Baptist Conference
             July 23, President Harding drove the "Golden Spike" to signal the completion of the Fairbanks to Seward Alaska railroad.
             August 30, Nathanael "Nate" Saint was born.  He was an evangelical Christian missionary pilot to Ecuador who along with four others were killed on January 8, 1956, while attempting to evangelize the Waodani people through efforts known as Operation Auca.  
Calvin Coolidge served as President of the United States.
Rev. Gideon Sjolander was our pastor.            
            January 15, Pastor Sjolander resigns to accept a call to become the General Conference Missionary.
            January 21, Vladimir Lenin dies and Joseph Stalin begins to purge his rivals to clear the way for his leadership of  The Soviet Union.
            April 1, Rev.  J. Alfred Erickson became Pastor.  He was our 13th senior pastor.
            April 5, Howard Hendricks was born in  Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  He is a longtime professor at Dallas Theological Seminary and speaker for Promise Keepers.  He has mentored many Christian leaders, including Chuck Swindoll, Tony Evans, Joseph Stowell and David Jeremiah.  He has authored sixteen books, has ministered in over 80 countries, and he also served as chaplain for the Dallas Cowboys football team from 1976 to 1984.
            May 4, The 1924 Summer Olympics opening ceremonies are held in Paris, France
            May 10, J. Edgar Hover is appointed head of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
            June 12, George Herbert Walker Bush, 41st President of the United States was born this day.
            November 1, Jimmy Carter, 39th President of the United States and recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize was born on this day.
            November 4, U.S. presidential election: Republican Calvin Coolidge defeats Democrat John W. Davis and Progressive Robert M. LaFollette, Sr. 
            November 24, Paul Carlson, an American physician and medical missionary who served in Wasolo, a town in what is now The Democratic Republic of the Congo was shot to death by Communist Insurgents.
            November 27, In New York City the first Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade is held.
            Ester Sabel joins the faculty as head of the Bible and Missionary Training School.

Calvin Coolidge served as President of the United States.
         Rev. J. Alfred Erickson was our pastor.
            January 5, Nellie Tayloe Ross becomes the first female governor in the United States.  She was elected governor of the state of Wyoming.
            March 4, Calvin Coolidge was elected the 30th President of the United States and became the first President of the United States to have his inauguration broadcast on radioCharles G. Dawes was elected as the 29th Vice President.
            May 12, Yogi Berra, American baseball player was born on this day.
            May 25, The Baraca Sunday School Class held their second annual banquet at Henry Thiele's Restaurant. See the menu and program.
            See notes from annual meeting concerning the new church at N.E. 7th and Clackamas by clicking here.
            October 13, Margaret Thatcher was born in Grantham, England.  Her name was Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher Roberts.  She was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.  She was the longest-serving British Prime Minister of the 20th century and is the only woman to have held the office.  A Soviet journalist called her the "Iron Lady", a nickname that became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style.  As Prime Minister, she implemented policies that have come to be known as Thatcherism.  She died on April 8, 2013 at the age of 87 in London, England.
            November 11, Jonathan Winters was born in Dayton, Ohio.  His legal name was Jonathan Harshman Winters III.  He was an American comedian, actor and artist.  Winters recorded many classic comedy albums for the Verve Records label, starting in 1960, and has produced recordings every decade for over 50 years.  He has also appeared in hundreds of television show episodes/series and films combined, including eccentric characters in a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World, the Wacky World of Jonathan Winters (1972-74), Mork and Mindy and Hee Haw.  He died on April 11, 20 in Montec
ito, California at the age of 87.
            November 26, Margaret Brunander (Steel) was baptized.
            November 28, The country-variety show Grand Ole Opry makes its radio debut on station WSM in Nashville, Tennessee.  It later becomes the longest-running live music show.
            Adolph Hitler wrote volume one of the book Mein Kampf while in prison.
            Burma-Shave was introduced by the Burma-Vita company.  From 1925 to 1963, the Burma Shave sign series appeared on road sides in most of the contiguous United States.
            K.J. Karlson succeeds Arvid Gordh as seminary dean.

Calvin Coolidge served as President of the United States.  Charles G. Dawes served as Vice President
         Rev. J. Alfred Erickson was our pastor.            
            January, property at Seventh and Clackamas was purchased.  Click the link to read about the history of the city block the church building sits on.
            January 17 ~ George Burns married Gracie Allen.
            March 6, The Building Committee recommended hiring a competent Architect to draw up plans for a new Church Building.
            April 3, Gus Grissom, American astronaut was born on this day.  Mr. Grissom died in 1967.
            April 21, Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom was born on this day.
            April 27, The Architect Walter Kelly presented plans for a building that would cost $50,000.  The plans were adopted.
            June 1, Andy Griffith, American actor of The Andy Griffith show was born on this day.
            June 10, Antoni Gaudi, Catalan architect died on this day.  He was born in 1852.
            September 1, Walter Kelly presented a sketch of the new church building.
            September19, ground breaking took place for the new building.
            October 4, See drawing of Front Elevation of new church building.
            November 11, Route 66 was establishedU.S. Route 66, also known as the Will Rogers Highway after the humorist, and colloquially known as the Main Street of America or the Mother Road or "The most famous road in the world."
            November 27, In Williamsburg, Virginia the restoration of Colonial Williamsburg begins.
            Aviation proponents proposed an airport for Portland on Swan Island, northwest of downtown Portland on the Willamette River.  The Port of Portland purchased 256 acres and construction began in 1926.  Although the airport wasn't completed until 1930, Charles Lindberg flew in and dedicated the new airfield in 1927.
            Fall, Multnomah Stadium, now known as PGE Park, opened.  Work started on the park in 1925.
            First bachelor of divinity degree is granted at Bethel.

Calvin Coolidge served as President of the United States.  Charles G. Dawes served as Vice President
         Rev. J. Alfred Erickson was our pastor. 
March 6, Sunday afternoon, the cornerstone was set in place.
            May 20-21, Charles Lindberg makes the first solo non-stop trans-Atlantic flight, from New York to Paris in the single-seat, single-engine monoplane Spirit of St. Louis.
            June 5, last service in the old building on Hoyt Street.
            June 12, dedication of the new church building.
                Click Here to see the Invitation to the Dedication Exercises.  
                Click Here to see the Program For Dedication.
            August 10,  work started on the carving of Mt. Rushmore.    
            October 21, Friday evening, dedication of the new pipe organ.  Pastor Erickson led in a dedication of the organ, followed by a recital performed by concert organist William Boone.  The organ was built by Teller-Kent Organ Company of Eric. Pennsylvania,  It had over 1100 electromagnets, with 25 miles of copper and silver wiring.  The organ contained 1,386 pipes, the largest pipe being 16 feet long.  The smallest pipe had openings the size of a led pencil.
            December 2, Following 19 years of Ford Model T production, the Ford Motor Company unveils the Ford Model A as its new automobile. 
            December 27, Robert Noyce was born in Burlington, Iowa.  Mr. Noyce ws nicknamed "the Mayor of Silicon Valley," co-founded Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957 and Intel Corporation in 1968.  He is also credited (along with Jack Kilby) with the realization of the first integrated circuit for microchip which fueled the personal computer revolution and gave Silicon Valley its name.  He died on June 3, 1990 in Austin, Texas at the age of 62.
            Portland's first municipal airport opened on Swan Island.
            To see photos and text of the new church building on NE 7th and Clackamas, Click Here.

Calvin Coolidge served as President of the United States.  Charles G. Dawes served as Vice President
         Rev. J. Alfred Erickson was our pastor.
February 11, the II Olympic Winter Games opened in St. Moritz, Switerland.
            April 22, An earthquake in Corinth, Greece destroys 200,000 buildings.
            May 11, Brother Andrew or Andrew van der Bijl was born in Sint Pancras, Netherlands.   He was also known as the God Smuggler.  He was famous for his exploits smuggling Bibles to communist countries in the height of the Cold War, a feat that has earned him the nickname "God's Smuggler. Brother Andrew studied at the WEC (World Wide Evangelisation for Christ)  in Glasgow, Scotland.
            May 15, The Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia commences operations.
            May 15, The animated short "Plane Crazy" is released by Disney Studios in Los Angeles, featuring the first appearances of Mickey and Minnie Mouse.  See the relatives of the Mickey Mouse family.
May 26, Jantzen Beach on Hayden Island, opens with four swimming pools, The Big Dipper roller-coaster, Fun House, the Skooter, Merry Mixup, Merry-go-Round, the Promenade and The Golden Canopy Ballroom.
            June 18, Amelia Earhart became the first woman to fly across the Atlantic.
            July 28, The 1928 Summer Olympics officially opens in Amsterdam.
            November 6, In the U.S. presidential election Republican Herbert Hoover wins by a wide margin over Democrat Alfred E. Smith.
            December 21, The U.S. Congress approves the construction of Boulder Dam, later renamed Hover Dam.
            The Ford Rogue Center was completed this year.  It was a Ford Motor Company automobile factory complex located in Dearborn, Michigan, along the Rouge River.  Construction began in 1917, and when completed this year became the largest integrated factory in the world. 

Calvin Coolidge served as President of the United States.  Charles G. Dawes served as Vice President
         Rev. J. Alfred Erickson was our pastor.
January 15, Martin Luther King Jr. was born.  He died on April 4, 1868.
March 4, Herbert Hoover is inaugurated as the 31st President of the United States.  He was a member of the Republican Party.  Previously he was Secretary of Commerce.  Charles Curtis was the Vice President.
            March 24, Palm Sunday--See a Bulletin from the Sunday Service at the White Temple (First Baptist Church)  Also see a lesson card from the White Temple Sunday School curriculum, dated 1915.
            June 12, Anne Frank was born.  Known for the diaries she kept about her experiences in the Second World War, Anne Frank is a figure about whom books have been written and films and documentaries produced.  The diary she kept of her years spent hiding from the Nazis in the rear of a building divided into front and back sections has been translated into fifty-five languages.  The house, where Anne Frank penned the diaries that were discovered after her death, is Amsterdam's most visited museum-house, with a long line of people waiting to get in at every hour of the day.  She died in early 1945, at the age 15, in Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, in Nazi Germany.
            June 26-30, Swedish Baptist Temple was host the first time to the Swedish Baptist General Conference.  The Conference was celebrating their 50th year at Temple.  Click Here to view a copy of the conference program.  (Most of it is written in Swedish)
            August 24,  The Hebron massacre refers to the killing of sixty-seven or sixty-nine Jews on this day in Hebron, then part of Mandatory Palestine, by Arabs incited to violence by rumors that Jews were planning to seize control of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem.
            September 3, The Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) peaks at 381.17, a height it would not reach again until November 1954.
            October 24, Black Thursday, the start of The Great Depression
            See the schedule for 1929 of Offices and Societies for the church.

Herbert Hoover served as President of the United States.  Charles Curtis served as Vice President
         Rev. J. Alfred Erickson was our pastor.
March 22, Pat Robertson was born on this day.  His full name is Marion Gordon "Pat" Robertson.  He is the founder of numerous organizations and corporations, including the American Center for Law and Justice, the Christian Broadcasting Network, the Christian Coalition, Flying Hospital, International Family Entertainment Inc. Operation Blessing International Relief and Development Corporation, and Regent University.  He is the host of the 700 Club, a Christian Television program airing on channels throughout the United States and on CBN affiliates worldwide.  
April 6, Hostess Twinkies are invented.
            August 9, Betty Boop premiers in the animated film "Dizzy Dishes."
            December 2, The Great depression:  U.S. President Herbert Hoover goes before Congress and asks for a US$150 million public works program to help generate jobs and stimulate the economy.
The Oregon Swedish Baptist Conference merged with the Washington Conference to form the Columbia Baptist Conference.
             Rev. A. H. Johnson remained as Conference Missionary until 1935.
             Population of Portland now 301,815.

Herbert Hoover served as President of the United States.  Charles Curtis served as Vice President
         Rev. J. Alfred Erickson was our pastor.
January 1, Due to hard times, the church stopped paying a salary to all workers and Rev. Erickson agreed to deduct $40.00 per month from salary for 5 months.
            February 20, California gets the go-ahead by the U.S. Congress to build the San Francisco - Oakland Bay Bridge.
            March 3, The Star-Spangled Banner is adopted as the United States National anthem.
            May 1, Construction of the Empire State Building is completed in New York City.
            May 19, David Ray Wilkerson was born on this day in Hammond, Indiana.  In 1953 he married Gwen Wilkerson.  He was a Christian evangelist, best known for his book "The Cross and the Switchblade."  He was the founder of the addiction recovery progam Teen Challenge, and founding pastor of the non-denominational Times Square Church in New York of Evangelical Doctrine and Practice, in which more that 100 nationalities were represented.   On April 27, 2011 while driving east on US Route 175 in Texas, Wilkerson crossed into the westbound lane and collided head-on with a tractor trailer.  He was pronounced dead on the scene.  His wife Gwen was injured.  Although Gwen survived the accident she died July 5, 2012, from cancer.
            May 15, Construction of the St Johns Bridge was completed, and the bridge was opened to traffic on June 13, 1931.  Click here for Website and Info of Portland's bridges 
            May 30, Swedish Baptist Temple held a Conference Concert 8:00 PM on Saturday.  Click here to view the copy of the original program.
            October 16, Chuck Colson or Charles Wendell Colson was born.  He was a Special Counsel to President Richard Nixon from 1969 to 1973, and later a noted Evangelical Christian leader and cultural commentator.  He died on April 21, 2012.
            Gertrude Gustafson was Temple's church historian.
   Early in this year, construction began on what is now known as Hoover Dam.  Originally was known as Bolder dam.  It opened in 1936, two years ahead of schedule.  
            Bethel Junior College begins with Walfred Danielson as dean.

            Herbert Hoover served as President of the United States.  Charles Curtis served as Vice President
            Rev. J. Alfred Erickson was our pastor.
            February 4, The Winter Olympics open in Lake Placid, New York.
            February 22, Today was the 200th birthday of George Washington.
            April 12, Martin "Moishe" Rosen was born in Kansas City, Missouri.  He was the founder and former Executive Director of Jews for Jesus, a Christian missionary organization that focuses on evangelism to Jewish people.  He died May 19, 2010.
            May 2, Comedian Jack Benny's radio show airs for the first time.
            July 2, Dave Thomas, owner of Wendy's Restaurants was born on this day.  He died in 2002.
            July 8, The Dow Jones Industrial Average reached its lowest level of the Great Depression, bottoming out at 41.22.
            July 30, The 1932 Summer Olympics open in Los Angeles.
            September 30, Pastor Erickson closed his work at Temple because of  bad health.
            November 8, U.S. presidential election:  Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt defeats Republican President Herbert Hoover in a landslide victory.
            Rev. Fredrik Linden became Interim Pastor.
            The Great Depression worsened.  Church was in danger of repossession.
            John P. Clum, Indian Agent died in Los Angeles.  See the website from The San Dimas Historical Society about this great hero of "The Old West."
            In 1932, radio station KTBR was sold to the Oregon Journal newspaper and the call letters were changed to KALE.  In December of this year, KALE moved to the mezzanine floor of the New Heathman Hotel at 344 Salmon Street, (now 712 SW Salmon Street).  KALE shared studios with new sister station KOIN,  In 1936, KALE began operation full time at 1300 killocycles.  The call letters were changed to KPOJ to represent its owner, the Oregon Journal. 

Herbert Hoover served as President of the United States.  Charles Curtis served as Vice President
Rev. Fredrik Linden was Interim Pastor.
January 5, Work began on the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco Bay.  The bridge opened on May 27, 1937.
            January 30, Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany.
            January 30, The Lone Ranger debuts on American radio.
            March 3, Mount Rushmore National Memorial is dedicated.
            March 4, U.S. President Herbert Hoover is succeeded by Franklin D. Roosevelt, who in reference to the Great Depression, proclaims "The only thing we have to fear, is fear itself" in his inauguration speech.  FDR is sworn in by Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes,  It is also the last time Inauguration Day in the United States occurs on March 4.  John Nance Garner was the Vice President.  President Roosevelt was a Democrat and previously was the Governor of New York.
            March 20, Dachau, the first Nazi concentration camp is completed.  It opened March 22.
            March 23, The Reichstag passes the Enabling Act, making Adolf  Hitler dictator of Germany.
            April 19, The United States officially goes off the gold standard.
            May 2, The first alleged modern sighting of the Loch Ness Monster occurs.
            July 6, The first Major League Baseball All-Star Game is played at Comiskey Park in Chicago.
             August 2, The sailing ship, USS Constitution, part of the US Naval fleet, entered and docked at Portland Harbor on this day.
            August 14, Loggers cause a forest fire in the Coast Range of Oregon, later known as the first forest fire of the Tillamook Burn,  The smoke plume from the fire rose to 40,000 feet as the inferno raged across a 15 mile flame front.  The power of the fire created a hurricane force wind that uprooted trees and snapped them like matchsticks.  Nearby coastal cities were plunged into darkness at mid-day due to the thick, blinding smoke.  Ashes and cinders fell on ships 500 miles at sea.  It is extinguished on September 5, after destroying 240,000 acres.  Visit the Tillamook Forest Center.  
            October 12, The United States Army Disciplinary Barracks on Alcatraz is acquired by the United States Department of Justice, which plans to incorporate the island into its Federal Bureau of Prisons as a federal penitentiary.
            November 11,  A very strong dust storm stripped topsoil from desiccated South Dakota farmlands in just one of a series of bad dust storms that year.  See May 9, 1934.
           November, Rev. Carl A. Olsson assumed the position of Senior Pastor at Temple.
            Refinancing of the church took place.
            The younger people wanted more English in the church services.  A vote was taken and members decided to hold on to the use of Swedish rather than adopting the wholesale usage of English in the church services.  One reason may have been the feeling that Swedish was more worshipful than English, and that the preaching should be understandable to the Swedish majority membership.  This caused part of the congregation to leave the church.  Gradually later in the1930's the language switched exclusively to English in the services.
           Radio services on KOIN were begun-"The Scandinavian Half Hour."
           Baptismal service at Temple on New Years Eve - Mr. & Mrs. Percy Seymour, Marjorie Rydman, Eileen JohnsonMrs. Carl Ostrom and Mrs. Haroldson were baptized.
           The U.S. Courthouse at Main and Broadway completed.
            The chocolate chip cookie is invented by Ruth Wakefield.
            Nazi persecution of Jews began during this year.

Franklin D. Roosevelt served as President of the United States.  John Garner served as Vice President.
Rev. Carl A. Olsson was our pastor.
            January 1 - 7,  The Golden Jubilee of Swedish Baptist Temple.  The honor of being the only living charter member of the Swedish Baptist Temple at East Seventh and Clackamas Streets, Portland, was bestowed upon our Mother, Grandmother and Great-Grandmother, Mrs. Augusta Palmblad, when the church celebrated its Golden Jubilee.  Click Here to see notes written at a Palmblad clan meeting August 19, 1934.  (Taken from notes compiled by Harley Hallgren.)
    January 7, The panorama photograph shown below was taken of the congregation in front of the church as part of the Golden Jubilee celebration. 

            February 4, Baptized at Temple - Betty Hallgren, Margaret Anderson, David Carlson, Astrid Johnson, Delores Wickman.
            April 1, Jim Ed Brown was born this day in Sparkman, Arkansas.  He was an American country music singer who achieved fame in the 1950,s with his with two sisters as a member of The Browns.  He later had a successful solo career from 1965 to 1974, followed by a string of major duet hits with Helen Cornelius through 1981.  Brown was also the host of the Country Music Greats Radio Show; a syndicated country music program from Nashville, Tennessee.  He died on June 11, 2015 at the age of 81.
            May 9, A strong two-day dust storm removed massive amounts of Great Plains topsoil in one of the worst such storms of the Dust Bowl.  The dust clouds blew all the way to Chicago where it deposited 12 million pounds of dust.  Two days later, the same storm reached cities in the east, such as Buffalo, Boston, Cleveland, New York City, and Washington DC.  That winter (1934-1935), red snow fell on New England.    
             May 28, Near Callander, Ontario, the Dionne quintruplets are born to Oliva and Elzire Dionne, becoming the first quintuplets to survive infancy.
            June 1, Pat Boone, American actor and singer was born on this day.
            June 9, The animated short "The Wise Little Hen, directed by Bert Gillett for the "Silly Symphonies" series, and featuring the debut of Donald Duck, is released.
            August 11, The first shipment of civilian prisoners arrived  on Alcatraz on this day.  Later that month, more shiploads arrived, featuring, among other convicts, infamous mobster Al Capone.  In September, of this year, George "Machine Gun" Kelly, another luminary of organized crime, landed on Alcatraz.  Earlier, the island of Alcatraz in San Francisco Bay was fortified into a high-security federal penitentiary design to hold the most dangerous prisoners in the U.S. penal system, especially those with a penchant for escape attempts.  
            August 19, The first All-American Soap Box Derby is held in Dayton, Ohio.
            October 18, Chuck Swindoll, American evangelist was born on this day.
            November 27, Luis Palau, Jr. was born on this day.  He says that he was born again at the age of 12, devoting his life to Christ.  He is an international Christian evangelist living in the Portland area in the state of Oregon.  He was born in Argentina, began preaching at age 18, and moved to Portland in his mid-twenties to enroll in a graduate program in Biblical studies.  Palau first heard Billy Graham on a radio broadcast for Portland, Oregon while living in Argentina in 1950, and drew inspiration from him.  He later worked for Graham as a Spanish translator and as an evangelist.  In 1970, Graham contributed the seed money for Palau to start his own ministry, which he modeled after Graham's.  Since then, Palau has held many large-scale evangelistic festivals and gatherings around the world. 
          Read a copy of the 1934 Annual Sunday School Report originally written by Helen Tjernlund, SS Superintendent.

            Franklin D. Roosevelt served as President of the United States.  John Garner served as Vice President.
            Rev. Carl A. Olsson was our pastor.
            January 8, Elvis Presley was born on this date in Tupelo, Mississippi.  The family attended an Assembly of God church where he found his initial musical inspiration.  Elvis was one of the most popular American singer of the 20th century.  Elvis died on August 16, 1977.
            January 11, Amelia Earhart becomes the first person to fly solo from Hawaii to California.
            June 7, See pictures of the Baptist Sunday School Rose Festival Float in the parade.
            November 5, Parker Brothers releases the board game Monopoly.  It is the most commercially played board game in the world.
            Rev. Ole Larson succeeds Rev. A. G. Johnson as Columbia Missionary.
            Bible and Missionary Training School is transferred to Bethel Junior College as the Christian Worker's Course.

            Franklin D. Roosevelt served as President of the United States.  John Garner served as Vice President.Rev. Carl A. Olsson was our pastor.
            February 14, Multnomah School of the Bible came into existence.  Rev. John G. Mitchell called a meeting of Portland, Oregon - area ministers and Christian businessmen to discuss an idea that consumed his thinking.  The Pacific Northwest, he was convinced, needed a school that would faithfully instruct men and women in the truths of God's Word.  Other men at this meeting shared Dr. Mitchell's vision.  Classes began the following October in a former mortuary with forty-nine students and a half-dozen faculty.
            March 28, William "Bill" Gaither was born on this day.  He is an American singer and songwriter of southern gospel and Contemporary Christian music.
            May 27, The British luxury liner RMS Queen Mary leaves Southampton of her maiden voyage across the Atlantic Ocean.
            June 30, Margaret Mitchell’s Gone with the Wind, one of the best-selling novels of all time and the basis for a blockbuster 1939 movie, is published on this day in 1936.
            August 1, The 1936 Summer Olympics open in Berlin, Germany, and mark the first live television coverage of a sports event in world history.
            August 3, American athlete Jesse Owens wins the 100-meter dash at the Berlin Olympics.
            December 1, First time the minutes of Business Meetings were written in English.
            December 15, Rev. Carl A. Olsson closed his work as pastor of Temple.
            The Junior Parade became an official Rose Festival event.
            Emery A. Johnson becomes dean of Bethel Junior College.

            Franklin D. Roosevelt served as President of the United States.  John Garner served as Vice President.
         C.A. Aldeen was interim pastor at Temple between 1936 & 1937.
            January 11, The first issue of Look Magazine goes on sale in the United States.
            January 19, Howard Hughes sets a new record by flying from Los Angeles to New York City in 7 hours, 28 minutes and 25 seconds.
            January 20, Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes swears in Franklin D. Roosevelt for a second term.  This is the first time Inauguration Day in the United States occurs on that date, on which it has occurred ever since; the change is due to the ratification in 1933 of the 20th amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
            February 21, The first successful flying car, Waldo Waterman's Aerobile, makes its initial flight.
            March, The first issue of the comic book Detective Comics is published in the United States.  Twenty-seven issues later, May 1939, Detective Comics introduces Batman.  The comic goes on to become the longest continually published comic magazine in American history' it is still published as of 2009.
            May 6, The German Airship Hindenburg caught fire as it attempted to dock with it's mooring mast in New Jersey.
         June 13, Temple celebrated its 10th Anniversary in the building on NE 7th and Clackamas.  See the Anniversary Program.
             July 12, Bill Cosby was born on this day.  He is an American comedian, actor, author, television producer, educator, musician and activist.
             September 5,  Ned Holmgren to Bethel Seminary.  He was a pastor at various churches till 1973.
             Rev. V. E. Hedberg became Pastor.  He was the first American born Pastor in the churches history.
             Trackless trolleys were introduced in Portland.
            Franklin D. Roosevelt served as President of the United States.  John Garner served as Vice President.
            Rev. V. E. Hedberg was our pastor.
            January 1, Ned Holmgren licensed to preach.
            January 3, The March of Dimes is established by Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
            February 4, Walt Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the first cell-animated feature in motion picture history, is released in the United States.
            February 24, A nylon bristle toothbrush becomes the first commercial product to be made with nylon yarn.
            June 28, The formal public dedication of the Swedish Historical Museum took place on this day.  The museum is located in Franklin Delano Roosevelt Park in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
            June 30, Action Comics #1 is published, which is the first publication featuring the comic book character Superman.
            July 1, Our former pastor, Rev. John Alfred Erickson went to be with the Lord.
            July 18, Wrong Way Corrigan takes off from New York, ostensibly heading for California. He lands in Ireland instead.
            October 30, Orson Welles's radio adaptation of the "War of the Worlds" is broadcast, causing panic in various parts of the United States.
            Bonneville Dam was completed.  Commercial electricity began its transfer from the dam in this year.
            The Second World War started. 
            Congress passed a bill that each November 11, shall be dedicated to the cause of world peace and hereafter celebrated and known as Armistice Day.
            November 11, Kate Smith introduced the revised, "God Bless America" written by Irving Berlin, from her radio broadcast, "The Kate Smith Hour." 
            Dr. M. R. De Haan started the Detroit Bible Class  from a small radio station in eastern Michigan.  In 1956 they started producing the daily devotional, "Our Daily Bread."

            Franklin D. Roosevelt served as President of the United States.  John Garner served as Vice President.
            Rev. V. E. Hedberg was our pastor.
January 24, Ray Stevens, American musician was born on this day.
May 28,  Written on the outside of the bulletin for today:  Today we bid welcome to our Pastor elect Rev. Linus Johnson, of Duluth, who visits us this day.
            June 19,  John MacArthur was born on this day.  View his website with all kinds of Biblical information.
            August 25, The church held a farewell reception for Pastor Victor Hedberg.
            September, Pastor Linus and Mrs. Johnson arrived with their children Earl and Marion.  Two other children were Beulah and George.  Beulah was in training at Midway Hospital, St Paul, and George was at Bethel Junior College.  Dr. Johnson came from Temple Baptist Church in Duluth, Minnesota.
            September 1, Germany invades Poland.  Some consider this day is when the first shots were fired in World War II.
            September 5, The United States declares its neutrality in World War II.
            September 8, Friday,  The church held a welcoming reception for our new pastor, Rev. Linus Johnson and his family.
            October 30, the church honored the Rev. and Mrs. Emanuel Bjorkquist and Mr. and Mrs. Gustav Hallgren in a joint celebration of their Golden Wedding anniversaries.
            Miss Helen Carlson started at Multnomah School of the Bible as a student.  Later became instructor.
            President Franklin Roosevelt moved Thanksgiving from the last Thursday to the third Thursday in November, to extend the Christmas shopping season.

            Franklin D. Roosevelt served as President of the United States.  John Garner served as Vice President.
            Dr. Linus Johnson was our pastor.
            March 2, Cartoon character Elmer Fudd makes his debut in the animated short Elmer's Candid Camera.
            May 15, The very first McDonald's restaurant opens in San Bernardino, California.
            June 16, The Sturgis Motorcycle Rally is held for the first time in Sturgis, South Dakota.
            July 1, The first Tacoma Narrows Bridge opens for business, built with an 8-foot girder and 190 feet above the water, as the third longest suspension bridge in the world.
            July 15, The Democratic Party begins its national convention in Chicago, and nominates Franklin D. Roosevelt for an unprecedented third term as president.
            July 22,  George Alexander "Alex" Trebek was born in Sudbruy, Ontario, Canada.  He is a Canadian-American television personality.  He has been the host of the syndicated game show Jeopardy since 1984.   Before that, he hosted other game shows, including the Wizard of Odds, High Rollers, and Pitfall.   Trebek has made appearances in numerous television series, usually portraying himself.  A native of Canada, he became a naturalized United States citizen in 1998.             
            July 27, Bugs Bunny makes his debut in the Oscar-nominated cartoon short, "A Wild Hare."
            September 16, The Selective Training and Service act of 1940 is signed into law by Franklin D. Roosevelt, creating the first peacetime draft in U.S. history.
            November 7, The Tacoma Narrows Bridge (known as Galloping Gertie) collapses in a 42-mile wind storm causing the center span of the bridge to sway.  When it collapses, a 600 foot-long design of the center span falls 190 feet above the water.
            The Baptist General Conference publication, "The Standard" was first published.
            Olympic Games are suspended due to World War II.
            There was a fire in Bonny Slope that burned 170 acres.   Bonny Slope is a community east of Cedar Mill which is part of the West Hills.

            Franklin D. Roosevelt served as President of the United States.  John Garner served as Vice President.
            Dr. Linus Johnson continues in his pastoral role at Temple.
            January 20, Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes swears in U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt for his third term.  Henry A. Wallace was the 33rd Vice President.
            February 4, The United Service Organization (USO) is created to entertain American troops.
            February 7, it was decided to use the name "Temple Baptist Church" in all publicity.
            March 22, The Army Air
Force formed the first African American fighter squadron.  The personnel received their initial flight training at Tuskegee, Alabama earning them the nickname Tuskegee Airmen.  The squadron was originally tentatively scheduled to fly air defense over Liberia but was diverted to the Mediterranean Theater of Operations.  They were known as the "Red Tails".
            March 22, Washington's Grand Coulee Dam Begins to generate electricity.
            May 1, The breakfast cereal Cheerios is introduced as CheeriOats by General Mills. 
            May 12,  Konrad Zuse presents the Z3, the world's first working programmable, fully automatic computer, in Berlin.
            October 23, Walt Disney's animated film Dumbo is released.
            December 7, the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor.
            December 8, United States and Britain declare war on Japan.
            December 11, Germany declares war on the United States.
            Click Here to see the Honor Roll of names of people from our church who were in WW II.
            Congress permanently fixed the date of Thanksgiving to the fourth Thursday of November.
            Miss Henrietta Carlson started at Bethel Seminary.  Later married Mr. Clifford Gustafson.
            Henry C. Wingblade is named president of the combined schools.

            Franklin D. Roosevelt served as President of the United States.  Henry A. Wallace served as Vice President.
            Dr. Linus Johnson continues in his pastoral role at Temple.
            January 26, First American forces during World War II arrive in Great Britain.
            May 22, The church debt paid.
            June, Mortgage due.
            June 21, Fort Stevens, Oregon is fired upon by a Japanese submarine.
            July 6, Anne Frank's family goes into hiding in an attic above her father's office in an Amsterdam warehouse.
            July 12, Sunday, the burning of the mortgage.  Click here to read an account by Harley Hallgren of the last days of the mortgage.
            July 30, Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES).
            September 9, A Japanese floatplane drops incendiary devices at Mount Emily, near Brookings, Oregon, in the first of two "Lookout Air Raids," the first bombing of the continental United States.
            October 23, Name of our church changed from "Swedish Baptist Temple" to "Temple Baptist Church."
            October 28, The Alaska Highway is completed.
            December 1, Gasoline rationing begins in the United States.
            All services at Temple are now spoken in English.

            Franklin D. Roosevelt served as President of the United States.  Henry A. Wallace served as Vice President.
            Dr. Linus Johnson continues in his pastoral role at Temple.
        January 13, Helmut Schenk is the first person to use an ejection seat from an aircraft.
            January 15, The Japanese are driven off Guadalcanal.            
            January 15, The world's largest office building, The Pentagon, is dedicated in Arlington, Virginia.
            February, See picture of group from Temple visiting Multnomah County Poor Farm as they did from time to time.   Edgefield Manor, as the facility is known today was built in 1911, served as the county poor farm where it was run as a self sufficient operation by the residents who worked in various forms of employment on the grounds.
            March 31, Rogers and Hammerstein's Oklahoma opens on Broadway, heralds a new era in "integrated" stage musicals, becomes an instantaneous stage classic, and goes on to be Broadway's longest-running musical up to that time.
            April 25, Easter occurs on the latest possible date.  The last time was in 1886 and the next time will be in 2038.
            June 27, The Clatskanie Church was organized.
            August 3, John F. Kennedy's PT-109 is rammed by a Japanese destroyer.
            September 19, Bethel Baptist Church in St. Johns was organized.
            December 4, The Great Depression officially ends in the United States, with unemployment figures falling fast due to World War II-related employment.
             Miss Lois Sorley was called from Wisconsin to assist Pastor Johnson in visitation work.     
            Sunday School for war worker's children was established in the St. John's area.
            There was a large fire at Alpenrose Dairy on S.W. Shattuck Road. $28,000 worth of Alfaha hay went up in smoke as well as a number of milking cows lost their lives.  A couple burnt match folders were found after the flames were put out.

            Franklin D. Roosevelt served as President of the United States.  Henry A. Wallace served as Vice President.
            Dr. Linus Johnson continues in his pastoral role at Temple.
            February 19,--Click Here to read letter from Mrs. Bjorkquist to Harley Hallgren.
            June 6,  Today was known as D-Day with the landing of 155,000 Allied troops on the beaches of Normandy in France.  This was the largest amphibious military operation in history.  This operation helped liberate France from Germany, and weaken the Nazi hold on Europe.
            June 17, Iceland declares full independence from Denmark.  
            October 8, The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet radio show debuts in the United States.
             October 10, Methodist Deaconess Home located near N.E. 25th and Flanders was purchased and  organized and became the Oregon Baptist Retirement Home.
             October 19, The Oregon Baptist Retirement Home was organized and became a corporation.
             See photo of Temple Baptist Church Congregation on front steps.
             At Chicago's Orchestra Hall, Billy Graham, a little-known suburban pastor led the first rally of Youth for Christ.
            Columbia Conference accepted responsibility for the Sunday School in St. John's.  Henrietta Carlson, (Mrs. Clifford Gustafson), was licensed for the ministry and sent to be the first leader-pastor of this work.  This Sunday School was soon to become Bethel Baptist Church.

            Franklin D. Roosevelt served as President of the United States.  Henry A. Wallace served as Vice President.
            Dr. Linus Johnson continues in his pastoral role at Temple.
January 1, Temple had their 61st anniversary dinner.  See List of 40 year and older members.
            January 20, Franklin D. Rosevelt was elected for a 4th term as President of the United States.  Harry S. Truman was elected his Vice President.
            January 27, Soviet troops enter the Auschwitz Concentration Camp complex and liberate 7,000 prisoners, including children.
            February 19, The battle for Iwo Jima began.  It continued for a little over two months until March 26.  The battle was marked by some of the fiercest fighting of the War.
            February 23, A group of United States Marines reach the top of Mount Surabachi on the island of Iwo Jima and are photographed raising the American flag.
            February, Rev. William Tapper, Director of Young People and Sunday School work in the General Conference was with us and held fine spiritual meetings.  
            April, In the latter part, Rev. Victor Larson, a great powerful preacher, from Elim Church in Seattle spent "Four Great Days" with us.
            April 12, President Franklin D. Roosevelt dies suddenly at 3:35 pm of a massive stroke while at Warm Springs, Georgia; Vice President Harry S. Truman becomes the 33rd President of the United States.
            May, The Methodist Deaconess Home (which became The Oregon Baptist Retirement Home) was purchased.
            May and June, Bernie Wennermark was Junior Rose Festival Prime Minister.
            May 5, A Japanese balloon bomb kills five children and a grown woman, Elsie Mitchell, near Bly, Oregon, when it explodes as they drag it from the woods.  They are the only people killed by an enemy attack on the American mainland during World War II.
            May 8, Victory in Europe, as Nazi Germany surrenders (V-E Day) commemorates the end of World War II in Europe, as Nazi Germany surrenders.
            June 11-22, Daily Vacation Bible School was held under the supervision of Miss Lois Sorley.
            July 1, work was started on remodeling of the Oregon Retirement home.
            July 4, The church had its annual picnic at Peninsula Park.
            July 9, A forest fire breaks out in the Tillamook Burn; third in that area since 1933.
            July, Dr. Arthur I. Brown, physician, radio minister and scientist was with us.
            July 11-15, Eugene Johnson, Lloyd Nordstron and Harold Carlson three young men from Bethel Seminary, gave inspiring talks, colored chalk drawings, and vocal selections.
            August 6, A United States B-29 Superfortress, the Enola Gay, drops an atomic bomb on Hiroshima Japan.
            August 9, A United States 2-29 Bomber, the Bockscar drops an atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan.
            August 5-12, Faith Bible Camp was held at Columbia City Fair Grounds.
            September 2, Japanese sign the surrender agreement aboard the USS Missouri--- V-J Day (Victory over Japan).
            October 2-7, We had "five great days" with Rev. Alphin Conrad from Ballard, Seattle.
            October 12, President Harry Truman presented Desmond Thomas Doss with the Congressional Medal of Honor, making him the first conscientious objector to receive the award.   He was featured in the movie Hacksaw Ridge.
             November, A special Thanksgiving service was held on Thanksgiving evening with Dr. Bob Jones of Tennessee.
             December 2, Dedication of the Oregon  Retirement Home and welcome for 1st Superintendent, David M. Anderson.
             December 31, the church had a membership of 333.
             Bethel Seminary's name becomes "Bethel College and Seminary."
             See photo of Temple Choir.
             See the Honor Roll of names of people from our church, members and friends,  who served in the military in WW II.
             This year the Swedish Baptist General Conference dropped the "Swedish" designation from their official name.
             The first and second floors including the custodians quarters were painted.
             Miss Lois Sorley was the church missionary.  She did a splendid job of solicitation of new members for the Sunday School and church.  The church bulletin was mimeographed by Miss Sorley.
             Mr. Earnest Hanson was the church clerk.
             Mr. Harley Hallgren was chairman of the Deacon Board.
             Merril E. Morgan was the Secretary and Treasurer of the Deacon Board.
             Hildur Strandberg was Secretary and Treasurer of the Deaconess Board.
             Mr. Ewald Anderson was chairman of the Trustee Board.
             Mr. Ernie Johnson was Secretary of the Trustee Board.
             Mr. and Mrs. Martin Wennermark were custodians.
             Read an account of the Scandinavian Half Hour for this year.
             Mrs. Ninian Westerlund was chairman of the Music Committee.
             Mr. Arthur B. Carlson was Director of Radio Broadcasts.
             Miss Maydora Westerlund was Treasurer of the Mission Committee.  The following Missionary speakers were heard at various meetings of the church:  Rev. Harold Hetter, of the International Christian Leper Mission, Rev. William Tapper, Dr. Arthur I. Brown, Rev. Dan Ganstrom, Mrs. Ulrich, temporary director of the Christian Service Men's Center, Miss Joy Ridderhoff, Mr. B. N. Hicks of the Anti-Liquor League, a representative of the African Inland Mission, Rev. William Hagstrom and Rev. Warren Johnson.
            Viola Anderson was president of the Senior Young People's Society, Maydora Westerlund was vice president, Betty Hallgren was corresponding secretary, Phyllis Rydman was recording secretary.  The treasurer was Stanley Christiansen and assistant treasurer was Ralph Rydman.
            Billy Graham drew 70,000 at Chicago's Soldier Field; began touring United States as Youth for Christ field representative.
            The school's name is changed to Bethel College and Seminary.
Harry S. Truman served as President of the United States.   President Truman served with out a Vice President until the election in 1949.
Dr. Linus Johnson continues in his pastoral role at Temple.
            January 10, The first meeting of the United Nations is held in London, England.
            January 11, John Piper was born on this day in Chattanooga, Tennessee to bill and Ruth piper.  He is a preacher and author, currently serving as Pastor for Preaching and Vision of Bethlehem Baptist Church in Minneapolis, Minnesota.  
            January 12, The Baptist Youth Fellowship had its annual meeting.
            April 3, Motorola was the first company to produce a handheld mobile phone.  Martin Cooper, a Mororola researcher and  executive. made the first mobile telephone call from handheld subscriber equipment placing a call to Dr.Joel S Engel of Bell Labs, his rival.
            April 10, a memorial service was held for Lt. Henry George Carr who was killed in action in the South Pacific.
            April 24, The Blue Angels, US Navy's Flight Exhibition Team was formed making it the second oldest formal flying aerobatic team (under the same name) in the world, after the French Patrouille de France formed in 1931.
            May, the decision was made to purchase property for Lake Retreat.
            Rev. Gordon Carlson succeeds Ole Larson as Columbia Missionary.
            June 6, The United States and allied troops invaded at Normandy. This was the largest air, land, and sea invasion in history. The goal was to surprise Germany, but Germany was ready to fight. It was the beginning of the end of World War II.
            July 4, The church held its annual picnic at Peninsula Park.
            August 9, Hildur Strandberg's parents celebrated there 50th wedding Anniversary.  See picture of them along with friends from Temple.
            The ladies purchased and put up draperies through out the church.
            The lower auditorium was painted.
            The church received a concert grand piano donated by Mr. and Mrs. George Strandberg and Mr. and Mrs. F. G. Salstrom.
            The church received an oak pulpit in memory of Mr. Alferd Johnson and Mr. Sven Larson, by their wives.
            A week after Easter, Rev. Vick was speaker at special services.
            October, Rev. Axel Anderson from Turlock, California led us in studies from the book of Jonah.
            People from Western Baptist Seminary, Multnomah School of the Bible spoke at different times during the year, as did the Gideon's, Rev. Turnwall, and Rev. Taggart.
            December 1, the church had 345 members on it's records.
            Seven boys and girls were led to the Lord at Vacation Bible School.
            The deacons were invited to attend the Golden Wedding Anniversary of Mr. and Mrs. Leonard Loydgren.
            The Trustee Board reported that the church has been painted.
            The church purchased the residence next door on the south side of the church.  Address of the residence was 1319 NE 7th Avenue.
            December 25, Temple had a Christmas Juletta Service.

Harry S. Truman served as President of the United States.
            Dr. Linus Johnson continues in his pastoral role at Temple.
            Walter Anderson was elected Camp Director at Lake Retreat.
            April 1, Jackie Robinson, the first African American baseball professional signs a contract with the Brooklyn Dodgers.
            April 16, An Industrial accident took place in the seaport of Texas City, Texas, which turned out to be the deadliest industrial accident in U.S. history.  It began with a mid-morning fire on board the French-registered vessel SS Grandcamp, which was docked in port.  The fire detonated approximately 2,300 tons of ammonium nitrate and the resulting chain reaction of fires and explosions killed at least 581 people, including all but one member of the Texas City fire department.
            May 2, The movie "Miracle on 34th Street," a Christmastime classic, is first shown in theaters.
            June 28, Mr. and Mrs. George Strandberg celebrated 25 years of marriage.
            July 1, the church had an anniversary celebration for Mr. and Mrs. George Strandberg.
            August 2, Thor Heyerdahl's balsa wood raft, the Kon Tiki, smashes into the reef at Paroia in the Tuamotu Island after a 101 day, 4,300 mile, voyage across the Eastern Pacific Ocean, proving that pre-historic peoples could hypothetically have traveled to the Central Pacific islands from South America.
            September 13-21, The First Billy Graham Crusade was held in Grand Rapids, Michigan and was attended by 6,000 people.  Billy would ask people to come forward after the message and ask Jesus to be their savior and pray together.  The inquires were often given a copy of the Gospel of John.     
            October 14, The United States Air Force test pilot, Captain Chuck Yeager, flies a Bell X-1 rocket plane faster than the speed of sound, the first time that this has been accomplished in level flight, or climbing.
            November 2, Aircraft designer and pilot, Howard Hughes performs the maiden flight of the Spruce Goose, the largest fixed-wing aircraft ever built.  The flight lasted only eight minutes and was never flown again.  The plane is now housed in the Evergreen Aviation and Space Museum at McMinnville, Oregon
            The house next door to the church was remodeled for a comfortable dwelling for the Pastor and his family.
            David Carlson entered Bethel Seminary.
            Rev. Carl Olsson, former pastor of the church went home to be with the Lord.
            Miss Lois Sorley left the church and moved to another mission field.
            Chairman of the Deacon Board was Mr. Joseph Westling.
            Secretary/Treasurer was Mr. Ivar Nordquist.
            A Shepherd boy fines some clay jars in a cave at Qumran.  In one was discovered the book of Isaiah.  The book is now housed in the Shrine of the Book in Jerusalem.  See 134-104 BC 
            Bethel College Launches a four-year program; C. Emmanuel Carlson is dean.  

Harry S. Truman served as President of the United States.
            Dr. Linus Johnson continues in his pastoral role at Temple.
            January 30, The Winter Olympics opened in St. Moritz, Switzerland.  This is the first Winter games since 1936.
            February 1, The Soviet Union begins to jam Voice of America broadcasts.
            March 8, The United States Supreme Court rules that religious instruction in public schools violates the U.S. Constitution
            May 14, The Declaration of Independence of Israel is made.  The new Jewish state named the State of Israel had been formally established in parts of what was known as the British Mandate of Palestine and on land where, in antiquity, the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah had once been.
            May 15 - July 18, Part of the 1948 Arab Israeli war.  The City of Jerusalem has been laid siege during the the above mentioned days and also twelve other times (according to the information I have) since 925 BC.  (1) 925 BC, (2) 701 BC, (3) 597 BC, (4) 587 BC, (5) 63 BC, (6) 70 AD, (7) 614 AD, (8) 637 AD, (9) 1099, (10) 1187, (11) 1244, (12) 1917, (13) 1948.     
            May 30, 4:05 PM, the Columbia River had its biggest flood of the century.  Thirty people perished in what came to be known as the Vanport Flood.
            April, a series of meetings were held by Rev. Gordon Hasselblad.
            June 11, The first monkey astronaut, Albert I, is launched into space from White Sands, New Mexico.
            July 10, the annual picnic was held at Peninsula Park.
            July 20, President Harry S. Truman issues the second peacetime military draft in the United States, amid increasing tensions with the Soviet Union (the first peacetime occurred in 1940 under President Roosevelt).
            July 29, The Summer Olympics begin in London, the first since 1936.
            August 1, Holy Communion service at Lake Retreat.  Six hundred - seventy two in attendance.
            September, God's Invasion Army was formed and started with 35 post high school youth.
            October, A series of evangelistic meetings were held by Rev. Edwin Swanson.
            November 2, U.S. presidential election-Democrat incumbent Harry S. Truman defeats Republician Thomas E. Dewey.  The Chicago came out with headlines that declared Thomas E. Dewey won the nomination which turned out to be incorrect.
            November 9, The Boy's Christian Service Brigade was started and was sponsored by The Men's Brotherhood.  Mr. Dave Johnson was Captain, Mr. Ray Lott, Dr. Evans Nelson and Mr. Dwight Hanson were lieutenants.  There were 14 boys enrolled.  Outings were enjoyed; a hike near Mt. Hood, Eagle Creek in the Columbia River Gorge, Frog Lake near Mr. Hood, Camp Meriwether and a hike around Tillamook Head.
            Harriet Norr succeeds Miss Lois Sorley as Church Missionary.  Miss Norr worked with other helpers in conducting a successful  Daily Vacation School and had an average attendance of 50 children.  
            A new 1948 Dodge 4 door sedan was presented to Senior Pastor Dr. Linus Johnson.
            A children's hour after Sunday School was just started.  Children ranging from 4-9 years old were included.
            The Cradle Roll department met in the room behind the balcony.  Large plate glass windows were placed in the wall so workers could see the services as well as a sound system so the service could also be heard.
            The mission in St. John's Woods is shepherded by Rev. and Mrs. Glenn Nordquist.
            The Senior Pastor, Dr. Linus Johnson turned in a resignation to the church, but the church asked him to reconsider, which he did.
            Mr. Ernie Johnson was chairman of the Board of Trustees and Mr. Norm Ryberg was secretary.
            The average church attendance was 219.

Harry S. Truman served as President of the United States.
            Dr. Linus Johnson continues in his pastoral role at Temple.
            January 17, The first Volkswagen Beetle to arrive in the United States, a 1948 model, is brought to New York by Dutch businessman Ben Pon.  Unable to interest dealers or importers in the Volkswagen, Pon sells the sample car to pay his travel expenses.  Only two 1949 models will be sold in America that year, convincing the Volkswagen chairman that the car has no future in the U. S. (The VW Beetle goes on to become the greatest automobile phenomenon in American history.
            January 20,  Harry S. Truman was sworn in as President of the United States.  Alben W. Barkley was named as the 35th Vice President.
            February 29 - March 6, God's Invasion Army visited Temple.
            Spring, Miss Henrietta Carlson married Mr. Cliff Gustafson.
            April 1, Érie Leaves the British Commonwealth.
            April 18, Érie formally becomes the Republic of Ireland.
            May 11, Israel is admitted to the UN as its 59th member.
            May 29,  the radio ministry was discontinued.
            June 24, The first television western, Hopalong Cassidy, airs on NBC. 
            July 16, the annual church picnic was held at Peninsula Park. 
            August, Mr. Louis Pilbeam, the Temple Choir director resigned.  Mr. Harvey Flansberg became the new choir director.
            November 9-11, The Berlin Wall was breached.
            Bethel Baptist Church in St. Johns, joined the Columbia Baptist Conference.
            New Dining Hall ready for use at Lake Retreat.
            Pastor Linus Johnson went to Sweden for two years.
            Harriet Norr was church missionary and youth director.
            The church acquired a parsonage.
            Sunday School Superintendent Merrill Morgan, his wife Jane and family left Temple and resettled at Lakeside Baptist Church in Oakland,  California.
            Oregon Baptist Retirement Home Manager, Mr. and Mrs. David Anderson left for Eugene, Oregon.
            Mr. Carl Ostrom was the church Financial Secretary.
            Billy Graham--A much publicized Los Angeles "crusade" made him evangelism's new superstar.

Harry S. Truman served as President of the United States.  Alben W. Barkley served as Vice President.
            Dr. Linus Johnson continues in his pastoral role at Temple.
January 23, The Knesset passes a resolution that states Jerusalem is the capital of Israel.
            February 8, Payment first made by Diners Club card, in New York, first use of a charge card.
March 14, J Edgar Hoover installed the 10 Most Wanted List.
            June 27, U.S. President Harry S. Truman orders American military forces to aid in the defense of c
            August 8, Florence Chadwick swims across the English Channel in 13 hours, 22 minutes.
            September 4, About 25,000 people attended the closing service of a six-week revival at Multnomah Stadium (now PGE Park).  Total attendance was estimated at 600,000. (From the notes of Harley K. Hallgren)
ctober 2, The comic strip Peanuts by Charles M. Schulz is first published in 7 U.S. newspapers.
            November 5, Billy Graham brought together a talented team to form the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association, and initiated a radio program, "The Hour of Decision."
            November 22, Shirley Temple announces her retirement from show business.
            Click Here to see a Oregon Journal, Mr. Fixit article written by Harley Hallgren.

Harry S. Truman served as President of the United States.  Alben W. Barkley served as Vice President.
            Dr. Linus Johnson continues in his pastoral role at Temple.
            January, Levi A. Lovegren, Baptist missionary from Cherry Grove, was arrested in Red China for "espionage."  They have been missionaries for the Baptist Church since 1917.  See 1888
            January 9, The new United Nations headquarters officially opens in New York City.
            January 18, Chinese and North Korean forces capture Seoul.
            February 27, The Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution, limiting Presidents to two terms, is ratified.
            March 12, Hank Ketcham's best-selling comic strip Dennis the Menace, appeared in newspapers across the U.S. for the first time.
            May 26, Sally Ride, American astronaut was born on this date.
            June 18, Battle Ground, Washington is incorporated.
            July 14, In Joplin, Missouri, the George Washington Carver National Monument becomes the first United States National Monument to honor an African American.
            September 30, see the bulletin for this Sunday services.
            October 15, I Love Lucy made its television debut on CBS.
            November 10, Direct dial coast-to-coast telephone service begins in the United States.
            Herbert Lawrentz, Seminary student, serves as Director of Youth Work at Temple.
            The current Apostles Creed or An Affirmation of our Faith was adopted by the Baptist General Conference.  Click here to read a copy of it.
            Billy Graham--held a meeting in Portland for one night.
            Closed up this year, the Hotel Portland met the wrecking ball of “progress” on a quiet autumn day in 1951. After it was razed, a parking lot for Meier & Frank was built in its place.  The two level parking structure was demolished thirty years later when Pioneer Courthouse Square recaptured the magic of the block, becoming the heart of the city. Once again thousands of people are drawn to the block daily.
            There was a fire in Portland West Hills:  a drought-related blaze started by a campfire burned 1,600 acres near the western end of Forest Park.

Harry S. Truman served as President of the United States.  Alben W. Barkley served as Vice President.
            Dr. Linus Johnson continues in his pastoral role at Temple.
            February 14 - 25, The Winter Olympics was held in Oslo, Norway.
            April 15, The United States B-52 Statofortress flies for the first time.
            April 17, President Harry S. Truman signed a bill proclaiming a National Day of Prayer must be declared by each following president at an appropriate date of his choice.  In 1988, the law was amended so that the National Day of Prayer would be held on the first Thursday of May.  A stated intention of the National Day of Prayer was that it would be a day when adherents of all great religions could unite in prayer.
            June 15, The Diary of Anne Frank is published.
            July 14, Franklin Graham, American Christian evangelist and missionary, the fourth of five children of Billy and Ruth Bell Graham was born on this day.
            July 19 - August 3, The Summer Olympics are held in Helsinki, Finland.
            November 4, Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower defeats Democrat  Adlai Stevenson for President of the United States. 
            Perry Hughes, Seminary student, succeeds Herbert Lawrentz as Director of Youth Work at Temple.

Harry S. Truman served as President of the United States.  Alben W. Barkley served as Vice President.
            Dr. Linus Johnson continues in his pastoral role at Temple.
January 20, Dwight D. Eisenhower was named as 34th President of the United States.  President Eisenhower ran as a Republican and previously served as Supreme Allied Commander of Europe.  Richard Nixon was elected Vice President.                    
            May 3, 3:00 pm, Sunday,  With the help of Temple,  Glisan Street Baptist Church was organized.  The Western Baptist Seminary Quartette and the Warren Dale Quartette sang.  Rev Bror Lundgren, Rev. Gordon Carlson and Dr. Linus Johnson spoke briefly.  The Dedication Message was brought by Dr. Linus Johnson.  Dedication Prayer was spoken by Rev. Anderson.  The gathering was held in the new church building.  
            June 30, The first Chevrolet Corvette is built at Flint, Michigan.  Tony Kleiber, a worker on the assembly line, is given the privilege of driving the now-historic car off the line.
            December 30, The first color television sets go on sale for about $1,175 USD.
            Rev. Herbert Lawrentz was unanimously chosen Student Body President at Western Seminary in Portland, for the year 1953-54.

Dwight D. Eisenhower served as President of the United States.  Richard Nixon served as Vice President.
            Dr. Linus Johnson continues in his pastoral role at Temple.
            January 21, The first nuclear-powered submarine, the USS Nautilus, is launched in Groton, Connecticut, by First Lady of the United States - Mamie Eisenhower.
            April 4, Loma Vista Baptist Church in Spokane, Washington was organized.
            May 1, The Unification Church is founded in South Korea.
            May 6, Roger Bannister runs the first four-minute mile.
            June 14, The words "under God" are added to the United States Pledge of Allegiance.  
            July 1, The United States officially begins using the international unit of the nautical mile, equal to 6,076.11549 ft. or 1,852 meters. 
            August 6, Temple Baptist Church voted to buy their first Sunday School Bus.
            September 3, The last new episode of The Lone Ranger is aired on radio, after 2,956 episodes over a period of 21 years.
            October 18, Texas Instruments announces the development of the first transistor radio.
            November--Perry Hughes becomes Christian Education Director.
            November 3, The first Godzilla movie premieres in Tokyo, Japan.
            November 10, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower dedicates the USMC War Memorial (Iwo Jima memorial) in Arlington National Cemetery.
            November 12, The main immigration port-of-entry in New York Harbor at Ellis Island closes.
            November 23, The Dow Jones Industrial Average rises 3.27 points, or 0.86%, closing at an all-time high of 382.74.  More significantly, this is the first time the Dow has surpassed its 1929 peak level reached just before that year's crash.
            December 1, The first Hyatt Hotel, The Hyatt house of Los Angeles, opens.  It is the first hotel in the world built outside of an airport.
            December 4, The first Burger King opens in Miami, Florida, USA.
            The TV dinner is introduced by the American entrepreneur Gerry Thomas
            Temple help start McLoughlin Heights in Vancouver, Washington, now known as New Heights.
            Billy Graham--International rallies in London were extended to12 weeks and drew more than 2 million people.
            Carl H. Lundquist becomes president of Bethel College and Seminary. 

Dwight D. Eisenhower served as President of the United States.  Richard Nixon served as Vice President.
            Dr. Linus Johnson continues in his pastoral role at Temple.
            January 11, Max Lucado was born in San Angelo, Texas, the youngest of four children to Jack and Thelma Lucado.  He grew up in Andrews, Texas.  His father was an oil field worker, while his mother served as a nurse.  He is a  best-selling Christian author, writer and preacher at Oak Hills Church (formerly the Oak Hills Church of Christ) in San Antonia, Texas. 
            January 28, United States Congress authorizes President Dwight D. Eisenhower to use force to protect Formosa from the People's Republic of China.
            May 5, West Germany becomes a sovereign country recognized by important Western foreign countries, such as France, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States.
            July 12, Read the note given to Harley Hallgren about the old pulpit that was given to the church by Mrs. John Nordell and was made by her father, Mr. P.M.  Holst, one of the charter members of Temple.
            July 17, The Disneyland Theme Park opens in Anaheim. California.
            August 27, The First edition of the Guinness Book of Records is published in London.
            September 10, The long-running program Gunsmoke debuts on CBS-TV network.  
            October 3, The Mickey Mouse Club TV program debuts on the ABC-TV network in the United States.  
            December 1, Rosa Parks is arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a bus to a white person, and the national civil rights movement begins.  
            Dr. Linus Johnson visits Sweden.

Dwight D. Eisenhower served as President of the United States.  Richard Nixon served as Vice President.
            Dr. Linus Johnson continues in his pastoral role at Temple.
            January 8,  Nate Saint and four others were killed on Palm Beach in Ecuador while attempting to evangelize the Waodani people through efforts known as Operation Auca.  See August 30, 1923.
            January 26, The Winter Olympic Games open in Cortina d'Ampezo, Italy.
            February 22, Elvis Presley enters the United States music charts for the first time, with "Heartbreak Hotel."
            March 2, Dr. Linus Johnson dies on way home from church.
            Rev. Ellis E. Eklof, Sr., answered the call to be our Pastor.
            March 12, The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 500 for the first time rising 2.40 points, of o.48%, to 500.24.
            June 10, The Summer Olympics, Equestrian events open in Stockholm, Sweden (all other events are held in November in Melbourne, Australia)
            June 29, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs the Federal Aid Highway Act, creating the Interstate Highway System.
            July 12, Sandi Patty, American gospel singer was born on this date.
            July 24, At New York City's Copacabana Club, Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis perform their last comedy show together (their act started on July 25, 1946).
            July 24, Mr. Frank Voth ordained.
            July 30, A Joint Resolution of Congress is signed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower, authorizing "In God We Trust" as the U.S. National motto.
            August 1, Steve Green, American Christian musician was born on this day.
            September 9, Elvis Presley appears on The Ed Sullivan Show for the first time.
            September 13, The hard disk drive is invented by an IBM team.
            October 8, Baseball pitcher Don Larsen of the New York Yankees throws the only perfect game in World Series history in Game 5 against the Brooklyn Dodgers.  Yogi Berra caught the game. Dale Mitchell was the final out.  The New York Yankees won the series, Larsen was named the MVP.
            October 22, Suez Crisis:  Britain, France, and Israel secretly meet and make plans to invade Egypt.
            October 29, The Huntley-Brinkley Report debuts on NBC-TV.
            November 3, The Wizard of Oz, is shown on television for the first time by CBS.
            November 6, Dwight D. Eisenhower defeats Adlai E. Stevenson in a rematch of their contest 4 years earlier.
            November 22, The Summer Olympics begin in Melbourne, Australia.

Dwight D. Eisenhower served as President of the United States.  Richard Nixon served as Vice President.
Rev. Ellis Eklof Sr. continues in his pastoral role at Temple.
            January 13, The Wham-O Company produces the first Frisbee.
            January 20, Dwight D. Eisenhower is inaugurated for a second term as President of the United States.
            March 1, Dr. Seuss' The Cat in the Hat is published.
            March 10, Floodgates of The Dalles Dam were closed, inundating Ceilio falls and ancient Indian fisheries along the Columbia River.
            April 11, Michael Card was born on this day in Madison, Tennessee.  Hi is an American Christian singer-songwriter, musician, author, and radio host from Franklin, Tennessee.  He is best known for his contributions in contemporary Christian music, which couple folk-style melodies and instrumentation with lyrics that stem from intensive study of the Bible.
            May 3, Brooklyn Dodgers owner Walter O'Malley agrees to move the team from Brooklyn, New York to Los Angeles, California.
            June 26-30, Temple Baptist Church was host the second time to the 86th Annual meeting of the Baptist General Conference.  The picture below is of the attendees to the conference taken on the front steps of the church.

This picture was copied from the July 12, 1957 issue of the "Standard"

            June 29, There was a Men's Brotherhood (of the Baptist General Conference) Banquet at the Multnomah Hotel in the Rose Bowl in Portland at 1 pm. 
            September 4, The Ford Motor Company introduces the Edsel on what the company proclaims as "E Day".
            October 4, The Soviet Union launches Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite to orbit the earth.
            November 1, The Mackinac Bridge, the world's longest suspension bridge between anchorages at the time, open in the US to connect Michigan's two peninsulas.
            November 3, The Soviet Union launches Sputnik 2, with the first animal in space (a dog named Laika ) on board.
            December 6, The first U.S. attempt to launch a satellite fails, the rocket blowing up on the launch pad.   
            This year was Billy Graham's largest revival meeting.  It ran 16 weeks at New York's Madison Square Garden with rallies at Yankee Stadium and Times Square.
.            Gordon Johnson was Youth Director at Temple.
            Annual Festival of Christmas concerts begin at Bethel.

Dwight D. Eisenhower served as President of the United States.  Richard Nixon served as Vice President.
            Rev. Ellis Eklof Sr. continues in his pastoral role at Temple.
            January 8, 14-year-old Bobby Fisher wins the United States Chess Championship.
            April 6, Easter Sunday - See Bulletin for the Easter Program, Easter Service and the rest of the week.
            April 6, With the help of Temple,  Calvary Baptist Church near West Linn was organized.
            April 15, The San Francisco Giants beat the Los Angeles Dodgers 8-0 at San Francisco's Seals Stadium, in the first Major League Baseball regular season game ever played in California.
            July 7, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs the Alaska Statehood Act into United States law.
            July 29, The U.S. establishes NASA to administer scientific exploration of space.
            August 3, The nuclear powered submarine USS Nautilus (SSN-571) becomes the first vessel to cross the North Pole under water.   
            June Peretti was appointed Temple's church organist.
            Bethel College is accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools.

Dwight D. Eisenhower served as President of the United States.  Richard Nixon served as Vice President.
Rev. Ellis Eklof Sr. continues in his pastoral role at Temple.
         January 3, Alaska becomes 49th state.
            January 18-25, Temple held the Seventy-Fifth anniversary celebration since founded in 1884.  See the Anniversary Program.
            February 3, A chartered plane transporting musicians Buddy Holly, Richie Valens, The Big Bopper and  Roger Peterson the pilot, goes down in foggy conditions near Clear Lake, Iowa, killing all 4 occupants on board. 
            February 16, Fidel Castro becomes Premier of Cuba.  
            March 18, American President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs a bill allowing for Hawaiian statehood.
            April 9, NASA announces its selection of 7 military pilots to become the first U.S. Astronauts (see Mercury Seven).
            April 25, The St. Lawrence Seaway linking the North American Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean officially opens to shipping.  
.            July 8, Charles Ovnand and Dale R. Buis become the first Americans killed in action in Vietnam.
            July 19, The Johnson Lodge at Lake Retreat was dedicated
            August 7, An explosion at Roseburg, Oregon kills 14 and causes $12 million worth of damage.
            August 14, Explorer 6, a United States satellite sends the first picture of Earth from space.
            August 21, Hawaii becomes the 50th state.
            October 2, Rod Serling's classic anthology series The Twilight Zone premiers on CBS Television.
            November, See photo of Temple Choir.

Dwight D. Eisenhower served as President of the United States.  Richard Nixon served as Vice President.
         Rev. David G. Danielson continues in his pastoral role at Temple.
            January 2, U.S. Senator John F. Kennedy (D-MA) announces his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination.
            January 9-11, The Aswan High Dam construction begins in Egypt.
            January 22, Jacques Piccard and Don Walsh descend into the Marianas Trench in the bathyscaphe Trieste, reaching the depth of 10,916 meters and become the first human beings (and so far the only) to reach the lowest spot on Earth.
            February 1, In Greensboro, North Carolina, four black students from North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University begin a sit-in at a segregated Woolworth's lunch counter.  Although they are refused service, they are allowed to stay at the counter.  Six months later the original four protesters are served lunch at the same counter.  A section of the lunch counter from the Woolworth store is now preserved in the Smithsonian Institution at the National Museum of American History.
            February 18, The Winter Olympic Games are held at Squaw Valley Ski Resort, in Placer county, California.
            March 6, The United States announces that 3,500 American soldiers will be sent to Vietnam.
            May 1, A Soviet missile shoots down an American Lockheed U2 spy plane; the pilot Francis Gary Powers is captured.  He is later sentenced, in Moscow, to 10 years in prison.
            May 10, The nuclear submarine USS Triton, under the command of Captain Edward L. Beach, Jr., completes the first underwater circumnavigation of the Earth.
            August 1, The newly built Lloyd Center in Portland opened.  It then consisted of 100 stores.
            August 25, The Summer Olympics open in Rome, Italy.
            September 26, The 2 leading U.S. presidential candidates, Richard M. Nixon and John F. Kennedy, participate in the first televised presidential debate.
            October 12, Nikita Khrushchev pounds his shoe on a table at a United Nations General Assembly meeting.  
            October 14, John F. Kennedy first suggests the idea for the Peace Corps.
            November 8, U.S. Presidential election:  In a close race, John F. Kennedy is elected over Richard M. Nixon, becoming (at 43) the second youngest man elected President.
            November 30, Production of the DeSoto automobile brand ceases.
            December 12, The Holy Bible in Spanish (the Reina-Valara 1960 Revision) is published.

Dwight D. Eisenhower served as President of the United States.  Richard Nixon served as Vice President.
         Rev. David G. Danielson continues in his pastoral role at Temple.
            January 20,  John F. Kennedy was sworn in as the 35th President of the United States.  President Kennedy was aligned with the Democratic Party.  Previously he was Senator from the State of Massachusetts.   Lyndon Baines Johnson was elected Vice President.
            April 12, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin becomes the first human in space.
            April 24, The Swedish ship Regalskeppet Vasa is removed from the water after being sunk 333 years earlier.  
            May 5, Alan Shepard becomes the first American in space aboard Mercury Redstone 3.
            July 1, Diana, Princess of Wales was born on this day.  She died August 3, 1997.
            July 21, Gus Grissom, piloting the Mercury-Redstone 4 capsule Liberty Bell 7, becomes the second American to go into space (sub-orbital).  Upon splashdown, the hatch prematurely opens, and the capsule sinks (it is recovered in 1999).
            July 22, Jim Daly was born in Alhambra, California.  He is president of Focus on the Family, an international Christian communications ministry based in Colorado Springs, Colorado,  He succeeded founder James Dobson in 2005.
            August 13, Construction started on The Berlin Wall by the German Democratic Republic.
            December 11,  The Vietnam War officially begins, as the first American helicopters arrive in Saigon along with 400 U.S. personnel. 
            Robert Wagner was Youth Pastor at Temple.
            The Office/Gym Addition was built.  Architect was Lawrence Supove.
             was President of the United States.
            The Baptist General Conference votes to relocate Bethel College and Seminary.
            Paul Washer was born in the United states of America sometime during this year.  He is the Founder/Director and Missions Coordinator of HeartCry Missionary Society which supports indigenous missionary work.  He is also a Southern Baptist itinerant preacher.

John F. Kennedy served as President of the United States.  Lyndon Johnson served as Vice President.
         Rev. David G. Danielson continues in his pastoral role at Temple.
January 1, The United States Navy SEALs are activated.
January 4, New York City introduces a subway train that operates without a crew on board.
February 20, John Glenn becomes the first American to orbit the Earth, three times in 4 hours, 55 minutes in Friendship 7, Project Mercury.  
            March 2, Wilt Chamberlain scores 100 points in a single NBA basketball game.
            April 21, The Seattle World's Fair opened.  It stayed open until October 21, of this year.
            April 21, The Space Needle in Seattle opened to the public.
            May 30, Memorial Day ~  The Avenue of the Righteous Among the Nations was inaugurated at the Yad Vashem Holocaust Museum, Jerusalem, Israel.  It is a pedestrian avenue, which is set aside to  honor the righteous of the world's nations who risked their lives during the Holocaust to save Jews from extermination by the Nazis.  Trees are planted on both sides of the avenue in honor each of these individuals.  Some 21,000 people have been recognized as righteous Among the Nations to date (as of 2005), with their names engraved on plaques next to the the approximately 2,000 trees planted along the Avenue and throughout Yad Vashem, or on walls in the Garden of the Righteous.  On October 23, 2005 a ceremony marking the renewal of the Avenue was held at Yad Vashem. 
            June 25, The United States Supreme Court rules that mandatory prayers in public schools are unconstitutional.
            June 28, The United Lutheran Church in America, Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church of America, American Evangelical Lutheran Church, and Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church merge to form the Lutheran Church in America.
            July 2, The first Wal-Mart store opens for business in Rogers, Arkansas.
            July 10, AT&T's Telstar, the world's first commercial communications satellite, is launched into orbit, and activated the next day.
            October 1, Johnny Carson takes over as permanent host of NBS's Tonight Show, a post he would hold for 30 years.
            October 12, The infamous Columbus Day Storm strikes the U.S. Pacific Northwest with wind gust up to 170 mph.  Gusts of wind reported in Portland of 116 mph. 
            November 1, The United States Post Office Department issued its first Christmas stamp in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.  Customers had requested such a stamp for years, Postmaster General  J. Edward Day said during the stamp dedication ceremony, adding that the stamp would be the first in a series of Christmas stamps.
            November 3, The term "personal computer" is first mentioned by the media.
            November 20, The Cuban Missile Crisis ends.
            November 21, Steven Curtis Chapman was born.  Chapman is a devout Christian, and as of 2010, he has been married to Mary Beth Chapman (they had the same last name prior to their marriage) for more than 25 years.   
            November 30, the youth center or Christian Education Wing on south side of Temple was dedicated (includes classrooms, gymnasium, custodian's apartment).
December 14, U.S. spacecraft Mariner 2 flies by Venus, becoming the first probe to successfully transmit data from another planet.          
            Jim Spickelmier worked with the youth during the summer.
            Click Here to see pictures of ground breaking ceremony for the 3 story addition on the West side of church..
            Miss Marjorie Olson was church office secretary and Missionary Visitor.

John F. Kennedy served as President of the United States.  Lyndon Johnson served as Vice President.
         Rev. David G. Danielson continues in his pastoral role at Temple.
            February 8, Travel, financial and commercial transactions by U.S. citizens to Cuba are made illegal by the John F. Kennedy Administration.  
            March 21, The Alcatraz Island federal penitentiary in San Francisco Bay closes; the last 27 prisoners are transferred elsewhere at the order of Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy. 
            March, "Lift" program of General Conference stimulated missionary and general giving.
            April 1, The long running soap opera General Hospital debuted on ABC.
            May 1, The Coca-Cola Company debuts its first diet drink, Tab cola.
            May 15-18, The Columbia Baptist Conference convened in Portland for the annual meeting.
            June, Jim Spicklemier, a Bethel student serves at Temple, as Youth Pastor.  He worked with the youth during the summer. At the end of the summer he left for New York for training with the Peace Corp.
            June 16, Vostok 6 carries Soviet cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova, the first woman, into space.
            June 17, The U.S. Supreme Court rules that state-mandated Bible reading in public schools is unconstitutional.  Abington School District v. Schempp
            June 22-26, The annual meeting of the Baptist General Conference was held in Vancouver BC.
            July 1, ZIP Codes are introduced in the U.S.
            July 5, The Roman Catholic Church accepts cremation as a funeral practice.
            July 19, American test pilot Joe Walker, flying the X-15, reaches an altitude of 65.8 miles, making it a sub-orbital space flight by recognized international standards.  
            August 8, The Great Train Robbery of 1963 takes place in Buckinghamshire, England.  All the men were caught and spent time in prison. No guns were used only the train conductor sustained head injuries from a pipe and had to give up his engineer job due to his injuries.
            August 28, Martin Luther King Jr. delivers his "I Have a Dream" speech on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial to an audience of at least 250,000, during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. 
            September 7, The Pro Football Hall of Fame opens in Canton, Ohio with 17 charter members.
            September 15, The 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama was bombed killing 4 children and 22 other children were injured.
            November 22, Friday ~ President John F. Kennedy was killed (assassinated) by a sniper's bullet in Dallas, Texas while riding in an open motorcade. Texas Governor John B. Connally is seriously wounded, and Vice President Lyndon Baines Johnson becomes the 36th President.  All television coverage for the next three days is devoted to the assassination, its aftermath, the procession of the horse drawn casket to the Capitol Rotunda, and the funeral of President Kennedy.  Stores and businesses shut down for the entire weekend and Monday, in tribute.

Lyndon Johnson served as President of the United States.  
            Rev. David G. Danielson continues in his pastoral role at Temple.
            January 1, Temple Baptist Church is 80 years old.  Click here to view part of the souvenir program.
            January 11, United States Surgeon General Luther Leonidas Terry reports that smoking may be hazardous to one's health (the first such statement from the U.S. government).
            January 17, John Glenn announces that he will seek the Democratic nomination for U.S. Senator from Ohio.
            January 18, Plans to build the New York World Trade Center are announced.
            January 26 to February 2, - The Baptist General Conference is sponsoring "Youth Week."  This years theme is: "My Best - For Christ."
            February 1, The Beatles vault to the #1 spot on the U.S. singles charts for the first time, with "I Want to Hold your Hand", Starting the "British Invasion" in America.
            February 9, The Beatles appear on The Ed Sullivan Show, marking their first live performance on American television. 
            February 25, Muhammad Ali beats Sonny Liston in Miami Beach, Florida, and is crowned heavyweight champion of the world.
            February 27, The government of Italy asks for help to keep the Leaning Tower of Pisa from toppling over.
            March 9, The first Ford Mustang rolls off the assembly line at Ford Motor Company.
            March 30, Merv Griffin's game show Jeopardy! debuts on NBC March 30 – Merv Griffin's game show Jeopardy! debuts on NBC; Art Fleming is its first host.
            April 25, Thieves steal the head of the Little Mermaid statue in Copenhagen, Denmark.
            May 14-16—Pastor Dave Danielson was elected Moderator for the 75th Anniversary meeting of the Columbia Baptist Conference which was held at the Central Baptist Church of Seattle.
            August 17,  The Forestry Building burnt to the ground.  See the year 1905.
            October 10-24, The Summer Olympics are held in Tokyo.
            Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore is credited with "Moore's Law" that the number of transistors on a micro chip would double every year.

Lyndon Johnson served as President of the United States.
         Rev. David G. Danielson continues in his pastoral role at Temple.
            Mr. Dale Peretti was chairman of the Christian Education Board and Mr. Bert Johnson was Sunday School Superintendent.
            January 20, Lyndon Johnson was sworn in as 36th President of the United States.  Hubert Humphrey was elected Vice President.
            January 23-28,--Annual Missions Conference was held with Rev. Francis Sorley of Japan, Miss Arlene Coleman from Ethiopia, Rev. Gil Anderson from Ethiopia, Miss Marjorie Malm of Ethiopia, Rev. Don Goldsmith from Brazil, Rev. Gerald Osbron of The Philippines, Miss Grace Swanson of Assam, and Miss Betty Person of Assam.
            February 15, Canada adopted their present National Flag.
            March 2, The movie version of Sound of Music was released.
            March 25, Civil rights activists led by Martin Luther King, Jr. successfully completed their 4-day, 50 mile march from Selma to Montgomery, Okalahoma. The march started on March 7.  Thus was the third march.
            April 19,  Gordon Moore predicted that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit would double every two years.  Moore's prediction (Moore's Law) proved accurate for several decades, and has been used in the semiconductor industry to guide long-term planning and to set targets for (R&D) research and development.  
            May 16, --Mr. and Mrs. Ernest Johnson celebrated 50 years of marriage.
            May 30, Memorial Day Weekend, 52 of our members formed work teams and helped make needed repairs to the buildings at Lake Retreat Campground.
            August 15 to 20,--Daily Vacation Bible School was held at the church. Dr. C.W. Slemming of England spoke.
            September 20—a group of ten members of God’s Invasion Army arrived to begin a two week visitation program with our church members.
            Mr. and Mrs. Henning (Josi) Johnson were custodians at Temple..
            Oregon designated the thunder-egg (geode) as the official state rock after the rockhounds of Oregon voted it as their first choice.
            Missions week included Dr. Paul Finlay of Bethel College, Rev. Wesley Lindblom of the Columbia Conference, Rev. Francis Sorley of Japan, Miss Arlene Coleman of Ethiopia, Miss Margorie Malm of Ethiopia, Rev. Irwin Bjelland, of The Philippines, Bill and Grace Anderson of Ethiopia, Miss Grace Swanson of Assam, Miss Betty Person, of Assam and Rev. Gerald Osbron of the Philippines.
            New Years Eve, a slide show was presented before the Watch Night Service called, “Temple: 1965 A Year in Review.”
            Young men in the military include:  Bob Davis in Germany, Mark Hagey in Kentucky, Gary Huff in Texas, Mike Herdener in Alaska, Ron Wright in Texas, and Ric Bailey in California.
            Len Johnson, Greg Anderson, and Klaus Siemieniec are all attending Bethel, the most ever at one time from Temple.
            Bethel College and Seminary moves to the new Arden Hill campus in St. Paul.

Lyndon Johnson served as President of the United States.  Hubert Humphrey was elected Vice President.  
         Rev. David G. Danielson continues in his pastoral role at Temple.
            Bud Malmsten was the Assistant Pastor.
January 23, 3:00 pm, Sunday ~ Dedication of the new building at the Mcloughlin Heights Baptist Church.
            May 25, U.S. Vice-President Hubert Humphrey and U.S. Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall dedicate the Gateway Arch, in St. Louis, Missouri.
            June 1, The final new episode of The Dick Van Dyke Show airs (the first episode aired) on October 3, 1961.                                                        
            June, 17, Bethel Baptist Seminary in Stockholm celebrated 100 years since its beginning.  Our first pastor, Rev. Gustaf Liljeroth was a graduate.
            June 21, 7:30 pm ~ The Annual Strawberry Festival was held at the Warren Baptist Church.
            September 8, Star Trek, the classic science fiction television series, debuts with its first episode, titled "The Man Trap."
            October, The Toyota Corolla car was introduced.
            November 8, Actor Ronald Reagan, a Republican is elected Governor of California.
            December 11, 3:00 pm ~ Multnomah School of the Bible Christmas Concert was held at the Madison High School Auditorium.
            December 15, Walt Disney dies while producing The Jungle Book, the last animated feature under his personal supervision.  He was 65 years of age when he died.

         Rev. David G. Danielson continues in his pastoral role at Temple.
            January 15-22, World Missions Week brought 4 missionaries to Temple:  Rev. Herman Tegenfeldt - Ragoon, Burma, Rev. Clem Walbert - Japan, Rev. David Sperry - Ethiopia, Rev. Nils Friberg -  Brazil.  The Rev. Cliff Gustafson represented the Columbia Conference.
            March 14, The body of U.S. President John F. Kennedy is moved to a permanent burial place at Arlington National Cemetery.
            April 7, Start of the Six Day war.  Israeli fighters shoot down 7 Syrian MIG-21s.  The actual war took place on June 5th and June 10th.
            April 9, The first Boeing 737 (a 100 series takes it maiden flight.
            May – At the annual meeting the church voted to sell the parsonage and apply the proceeds to the building loan for the Youth Center.
           May 28—A reception was held at the Oregon Baptist Retirement Home to honor the retirement of Mr. and Mrs. Walferd Johnson, the Home Administrators. Mrs. Linus Johnson stepped in during the summer as Supervisor.
            August 1, Israel annexes East Jerusalem.
            August 30, Thurgood Marshal is confirmed as the first African American Justice of the United States Supreme Court.
            September 3, H-Day in Sweden: At 5:00 a.m. local time, all traffic in the country switches fro left-hand traffic pattern to right-hand traffic.
           September—Mr. and Mrs. Reuben Ronne and Karry Sue were welcomed to the Oregon Baptist Retirement Home as administrators.
            October 2,  The U. S. Supreme Court installed its first black judge, Thurgood Marshall.
            November 7, U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967, establishing the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. 
            December 11, The Supersonic airliner Concorde is unveiled in Toulouse, France.

         Rev. David G. Danielson continues in his pastoral role at Temple.
            January 23, North Korea seizes the USS Pueblo, claiming the ship violated its territorial waters while spying.
            February 6--18, The Winter Olympics are held in Grenoble, France.
            February 19, NET televises the very first episode of Mister Rogers' Neighborhood.
            March 18, The United States Congress repeals the requirement for a gold reserve to back U.S. currrency.
            May 17-26--The Billy Graham Crusade was held in Portland.
            April 4, Martin Luther King Jr. is shot dead at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee.  Riots erupt in major American cities, lasting for several days afterwards.
            April 23, The United Methodist Church is created by the union of the former Methodist and Evangelical United Brethren churches.
            June 5, U.S. presidential candidate Robert F. Kennedy is shot at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, California by Sirhan Sirhan.  Kennedy dies from his injuries the next day.
            July 8--Annual Sunday School Picnic was held at Blue Lake.
            July 18, The semiconductor company Intel is founded.
            September 7, Hot Wheel Cars were introduced on this day.
            September 24, 60 Minutes debuts on CBS and remains on the air today.
            October 12--27, The Games of the XIX Olympiad are held in Mexico City, Mexico.
            November 5, Republican challenger Richard M. Nixon defeats the Democratic candidate, Vice President Hubert Humphrey, and American Independent Party candidate George C. Wallace.
            December 24, U.S. spacecraft Apollo 8 enters orbit around the Moon.  Astronauts Frank Borman, Jim Lovell and William A. Anders become the first humans to see the far side of the Moon and planet Earth as a whole.  The crew also reads from the book of Genesis.
            The church adopted a housing allowance for the Senior Pastor as the Church Parsonage was sold.
            Mr.& Mrs.Gary Davis (Kathy) went to Spain as missionaries under Greater Europe Mission.
            Summer, Miss Sharon Smith went to Ethiopia as a Baptist General Conference  missionary nurse.
             Mr. Bert Johnson was the Sunday School Superintendent.
            51 young people from Temple attended Lake Retreat Bible Camps, Dr. Celious Williams scheduled two busy evenings for camp physicals.
            Mrs. Onis Watson was Superintendent of the Junior High Department at Temple.
            Sunday School attendance averaged 240 this year.
            Billy Graham--had a revival planned for the Memorial Coliseum but had to move to the Civic Stadium to accommodate larger crowds.
            The Nelson Residence Hall at Bethel is completed. 
Lyndon Johnson served as President of the United States.  Hubert Humphrey was elected Vice President.  
         Rev. David G. Danielson continues in his pastoral role at Temple.
            January 20, Richard M. Nixon was elected as President of the United States.  Spiro Agnew was elected Vice President.
            January 20, After 147 years, the last issue of The Saturday Evening Post is published.
            February 2, Richard Milhous Nixon succeeds Lyndon Baines Johnson as the 37th President of the United States of America.
            February 4, In Cairo, Yasser Arafat is elected Palestine Liberation Organization leader at the Palestinian National Congress.
            February 9, The Boeing 747 makes its maiden flight.
            March 2, In Toulouse, France the first Concorde test flight is conducted.
            March 17, Golda Meir becomes the first female prime minister of Israel.
            March 28, Former United States Army General and U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower dies of congestive heart failure after a long illness in the Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington D.C.  He was 78 years old.
            April 4, Martin Luther King Jr. was slain in Memphis, Tennessee.
            July 20, Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin and Michael Collins took man's first walk on the moon.  Ed Aldrin celebrated a communion service before he and Neil Armstrong exited the Lunar Module.
            August 15--18, The Woodstock Festival is held in upstate New York, featuring some of the top rock musicians of the era.
            October 21, Mr. and Mrs. Mandy (Hildur) Strandberg celebrated their 40th wedding anniversary.  See a picture or drawing of the church that was presented to them.
            November 15, Dave Thomas opens his first restaurant in a former steakhouse on a cold, snowy Saturday in downtown Columbus, Ohio.  He names the chain Wendy's after his 8-year old daughter Melinda Lou (nicknamed Wendy by her siblings).
         Okerson Lodge construction was started at Lake Retreat.
            At General Motors plant in Lordstar, Ohio  a robot helped produced 110 cars per hour.

Rev. David G. Danielson continues in his pastoral role at Temple.
March 25, The Concorde makes its first supersonic flight (700 mph 1,127 km/hr).
April 1, President Richard Nixon signs the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act into law, banning cigarette television advertisements in the United States with effect from January 1, 1971.
April 1, American Motors Corporation introduces the Gremlin.
         April 30, President Nixon announced that US troops would join with South Vietnamese troops to invade the border area of Cambodia.
            May 8, The Beatles release their 12th and final album, "Let It Be."
May 17, Thor Heyerdahl sets sail from Morocco on the papyrus boat Ra II, to sail the Atlantic Ocean.
June 10, U.S. President Richard Nixon signs a bill lowering the voting age to 18.
June 11, The United States Army Nurse Corp, gets its first female brigadier generals: Anna Mae Hays and Elizabeth P. Hoisington.
July 31, NBC anchor Chet Huntley retires from full-time broadcasting.
September 13, The first New York City Marathon begins.
            October 5, The Corporation for Public Broadcasting Service begins broadcasting.  It was known previously known as the National Educational Television

Rev. David G. Danielson continues in his pastoral role at Temple.
March 30, The original Starbucks opened in Pike Place Market in Seattle, Washington.
         June 6, Mrs. Josie Peterson from Birmingham, Alabama became the first Negro member of Temple.
            June 14, The first Hard Rock Cafe opened in Piccadilly, London, United Kingdom under the ownership of 2 young Americans, Peter Morton and Isaac Tigrett.
            September 6, Okerson Lodge dedicated at Lake Retreat.
            Some time during the fall season the former church on Caruthers Street was torn down to make room for a gas station.
            The voting age for Federal Elections was lowered to 18 through the 26th Amendment to the Constitution.
            December 31, Pastor Danielson gave his final sermon as Senior Pastor on New Years Eve.
            Bethel celebrates 100 years; construction begins on college buildings on Arden Hills campus.
Stephanie Louise Kwolek, a chemist invented Kevlar while working at Dupont.

         February 13, Pastor Eric Lindholm began as Interim Pastor.
            May 4, Chris Tomlin was born in Grand Saline, Texas.  He is an American contemporary Christian music artist, worship leader, and songwriter from Grand Saline, Texas who has sold nearly 30 million records.      
            June 17, A break- in was reported at Democratic Headquarters at The Watergate Complex.
            June 27, Pastor Lindholm and Mrs. Lindholm celebrate their Golden Wedding Anniversary.
            September, Dick Weins arrives at Temple to be Senior Pastor.
            Bethel College opens on the Arden Hills campus with four main buildings and 14 student townhouses completed.

            Rev. Dick Weins continued to served as Senior Pastor. 
         An extensive remodeling program was undertaken to update the entire church facility.  The completion of this project has resulted in a beautiful sanctuary and functional classrooms for the church school.  See Architects color presentation of church building with proposed additions and improvements.
            James Gallatin and Bud Malmsten were serving with Pastor Dick Weins.
            James Gallatin begins Bus Ministry. 
            Gary Nyquist hired as Director of Music. 
            May--Annual Meeting: 
                   New Constitution adopted, 
                   One Board of Deacons in charge of all activities of the church. 
                   Voted to remodel building at a cost of $200,000.
             June 10-12, Bus Conference, attracted participants from about 100 churches.
             June, Bob Lott was special Summer Youth Director.
             August, Gary Davis family home on furlough from Spain.
             September, Bob Lott leaves for Bethel Seminary.
             September 16, Pastor Weins' 1st Anniversary as Pastor.
                     Pastor Buds' 10th Anniversary at Temple.
                     Gary Nyquist begins Ministry of Music.
            September, Moishe Rosen officially founded Jews for Jesus.  Sometimes people ask them, "How long has Jews for Jesus been around?"  The love that question because it gives them the chance to grin and say, "Since 32 AD, give or take a rear."  The statement reminds people that a minority of Jewish people have always believed and proclaimed the Gospel, and that they follow in that same tradition.
             November 4, Rev. Alf Engebrettsen joins staff as Visitation Pastor.
             Billy Graham--More than 1 million people attended services in South Korea.
             The historic Scandia Church relocates to Bethel's campus.    

            Rev. Dick Weins continued to served as Senior Pastor.
         January 1,  Ninety  years since the church was organized.
            January 28, Mrs. Velma Rydman, Senior member on Anniversary date, died.  She was a member for 70 years, Sunday School Teacher, and Church organist.
             Mrs. Victor Carlson was honored on March 27th at the OBRH on her 80th birthday.
             March 31, first anniversary of the Bus Ministry; there were 427 riders on the buses, and 823 attendance at Sunday School.
             April 8, Chris Kyle was born in Odessa, Texas to Deby Lynn and Wayne Kenneth Kyle, a Sunday school teacher and a deacon in the church they attended.  Chris was a Chief Petty Officer in US Navy.  He was a Navy Seal and the most lethal sniper in US military history.  He died on February 2, 2013, killed by a friend of his whom Kyle was trying to help who had mental problems.   Kyle saved countless lives while in the military with his sharpshooter skills and his death was mourned by more than 7,000 people who attended his funeral service held at the Dallas Cowboys stadium.
             April, We celebrated our 90th Anniversary. At the same time we hosted the 85th annual Meeting of the Columbia Baptist Conference. Former pastors Ellis E. Eklof Sr. (1956-59), David Danielson (1960-1971) and Eric Lindholm (1972), were with us.  They helped Pastor Richard Wiens, Associate Pastor Bud Malmsten and Pastor Jim Gallatin with celebrating “90 Years of God’s Wonderful Grace”.
             At the banquet at the Coliseum, the 25th Anniversary of our “daughter church” Bethel in St. Johns was also celebrated.
           Special guests at the banquet included Mr. & Mrs. Allan Bussey….he is the grandson of the pioneer missionary, Rev. Olaus Okerson who started our church and other churches of the Columbia Conference.  Also Mrs. Signe Stone Ball, daughter of charter members Mr. and Mrs. Charles Stone, Mrs. Emily Palmblad Magnuson, Mr. Albert Palmblad, daughter and son of charter members Mr. and Mrs. John Palmblad.
           May 19,  Temple had a 90th Anniversary Program in the Basement Fellowship Hall.  See the program.
           July, Gary Nyquist, Director of Music left for Bethel to finish school.
           September, Pastor Jim Gallatin left us to become pastor of the Evergreen Baptist Church in Tacoma.
           October 20, Pastor Weins resigns.
           President Nixon was forced to resign under impeachment proceedings as a result of the Watergate scandal.
           The King Dome was being constructed in Seattle, Washington.  The first major event held there was a Billy Graham crusade which filled the new dome to over flow capacity.
            Since the middle of February, Dr. Bror Lundgren with Mrs. Lundgren have been serving as Interim Pastor while the church is looking and praying for a successor to Pastor Wiens.  In January, Dr. Lundgren closed his work with the Central Baptist Church of Tacoma after 34 years of fruitful ministry; and in the Providence of God was therefore available to help us for a time.
           The Strands, our custodians, left us and the Henning Johnson’s stepped in on a temporary basis.   The new custodians are the Winn Goddards.
           The custodians apartment was officially converted to Sunday School space.
           The old part of the building has been waterproofed and is now ready for painting.
           The Sunday School has had a high attendance of 500.
           The Deaconesses honored Miss Mabel Dahlgren on her 80th birthday.
           The church went through a major remodel.  Fisher Wallin and Long were the Architects.  The new stair tower was built, the old "rick-rack" and plaster were removed above and in back of choir loft and vertical oak was installed plus the hide-a-way projector screen.  The doors in back of the sanctuary were removed and relocated.  A new platform was built to replace the original one.  The foyer went through a major face lift.  The small exterior door on the front of the church on the south end was removed as well as the door just below it that accessed the lower level of the church. The stairway on the south end of the foyer that went from the lower auditorium to the balcony was removed.  (The new stair tower would take the place of the stairway as well as the two small exterior doors.)  It was quite a chore saw cutting the 24" concrete of the basement wall for the new access from the stair tower. The existing ladies restroom under where the stair way was on the south end of the foyer was remodeled with additional fixtures installed.  The men's restroom on the north east corner of the basement was also went through a remodel.  Steam heat fan coils were added in the foyer and the ceiling of the street level in the new stair tower.   A finned steam pipe was added in the toe kick in the new library.  The steam boiler was also retrofitted with automatic steam zone valves which were operated by a new control panel in the boiler room plus the thermostats around the building.  A new 4" Sanitary Sewer line was run under the floor of the basement with a check valve or backwater valve, which was installed in line below the ladies restroom.  The purpose of this backwater valve was to stop the basement from flooding when there was an excessive amount of rainfall.  The city at that time had a combination storm-sanitary sewer in the street.  
            The doctor of ministry program is instituted at Bethel seminary.

         February 16, Bror Lundgren arrived as interim pastor with great blessings to the church.
            February 27, The 30th anniversary dinner for the Oregon Baptist Retirement Home.
            March 7, Was the ground breaking for enlarged facilities of Calvary Baptist Church of Cedar Oak Park, West Linn, Oregon.
           May 28,  Mark Johnson, Bethel College senior and the Student Body President, was licensed to preach and went to spend the summer to assist our former pastor, Rev. David Danielson in Bellingham, Washington.
           September 2,--Pastor Prinzing and family arrived at Temple.
           October 31,--Pastor Bud Malmsted left for Loma Vista Baptist in Spokane, Washington.
           November, decision made to move the churches offices from the rooms behind the sanctuary to the vacated custodians apartment when renovated.           
            This year some remarkable widows went to be with the Lord
                  Mrs. Velma Rydman, Sunday School Teacher, Church Organist, and faithful wife of O. S. Rydman.
                  Mrs. Ellen Milton, 96 years old, more than 60 years a member of this church, one of the founders of the Oregon Baptist Retirement Home, faithful in hospitality and in encouraging many in the Lord's work.
                    Mrs. Mary Danielson, 91 years of age and a member of this church more than 50 years.   Many times hospitalized because of fractures, never really well, spending her time outfitting hundreds of dolls for children's homes and memorizing Christmas poems.  A few months before her last brief illness, someone visiting her said, "Mary, it is always so nice to visit you because you never complain!"  She answered, "I don't have anything to complain about."
          The church started a quilting group.  Click here to read an account and to view some images of ladies of the group.
          Read a copy of the Temple Teleios: A monthly news letter that was published a short time.  This is volume 1 Issue 3.
            Bethel College and Seminary hold separate commencements for the first time.  
         Dr. Fred Prinzing continued as senior pastor.             
         April 19, Lenus Peterson died.
            June 6, Jacob Gordh died.  He was a member of Temple for 64 years.  He was instrumental with the construction of the building of the church in 1926-27.
            June 11, Pastor Ed Mitchell was ordained at Temple.
            July 4, the United States celebrated its bicentennial.
            July 21, Harley Hallgren died.  He was 84 years young and was an active member 66 years.
            September 2, Dr. F. G. Salstrom died at 75.  He was a member for nearly 60 years.
            September 27, Dr. Bror Lundgren died at the age of 72.
            Temple helped start Southwest Hills Baptist Church in Beaverton.
            November 19, first service at Southwest Hills Baptist Church - Dan Peterson was Pastor at that time.
            During the Summer and Fall seasons new main clear glass doors were installed on the church and the exterior was painted.
            The Church office move was completed.

         Dr. Fred Prinzing continued as senior pastor.
            April 10, Easter Sunday,  the evening service; Corrie Ten Boom was the guest speaker.  See 1892, the year Corrie ten Boom was born.
           June, Lloyd Rekstad and family came to Temple and joined the staff as the Director of Music.
           June 3, Temple hosted a 50 Year Celebration  for the completion of the present building.  See the program for the Banquet.
            June 5, The Portland Trail Blazers under the direction of Jack Ramsey, won the National Basketball Association championship.  They beat the Philadelphia 76er's 4 games to 2.
           September, Temple hosted the Family Focus Seminar (Focus on the Family).  Over 1,300 people attended.
           November, Deacon Board voted to purchase the Chi Alpha Youth House.
           December, The church purchased a parcel of land near the church, the initial use was to park the church buses.  It was located adjacent to or north of the lot the Chi Alpha Youth House was located on..
           December 15, work started on the chapel-house for Southwest Hills Baptist Church.
           Temple has helped start some churches in the Portland Area in the past and is continuing to do so today.  For a list of these Churches:  Click Here
           Billy Graham--Meetings in Hungary began meetings outside of western friendly countries.  (Into the Soviet bloc.)
            Bethel Seminary-West Campus open at College Avenue Baptist Church in San Diego, California.

         Dr. Fred Prinzing continued as senior pastor.            
            March 15, Dave Parker hired as Director of Evangelism and Adult Ministries.
            October, Temple began Temple Sonshine (youth choir) with eight children from three years to fifth grade.
            39 new members joined the church this year.
            Pastor Prinzing was asked to deliver the commencement address at Bethel College.
            In the spring Pastor Prinzing was selected as the special guest speaker to minister for one week to the Bethel Seminary students.
            Dave Parker was in charge of Evangelism and Adult Ministries.
            Terry Hollister was Director of High School Ministries.
            October, The Gary Randall Program, a 1/2 hour Christian talk show started and ran for 12 years on KOIN/TV.
            Temple had its first Craft Fair in December.  A birthday party was included honoring Bill Steele on his 82nd Year.

         Dr. Fred Prinzing continued as senior pastor.
May, the church purchased a home on the North West corner of NE Sixth and Clackamas for use in its youth ministries. (Chi Alpha House) 
            Bob Lott was called to be Assistant Pastor.
            Lloyd Rekstad was Director of Music.  “Serve the Lord with gladness; come before his presence with singing.” Psalm 100:2
            Russ Jensema was in charge of Junior High Ministries.
            The Deacon Board felt it was necessary to update our membership rolls this year, which resulted in releasing 70 members. Most had found fellowship in other churches.
            Evans Nelson was the Church Moderator.
            The front steps to the church were tiled giving them a non slip surface.

         Dr. Fred Prinzing continued as senior pastor.
January 1, Read an account of an experience by Karen and Terry Whitehill.
            January 21, Our Christian Education workers attended the annual Christian Leadership Conference in Seattle.
            January 30, Bill Steele died.  Bill was married to Margaret (Brunander) Steel.
            February 29, Martha C. Larson died.  Martha was married to Chalmert Larson.
            March 2, Peter John Carlson died.  Peter was the son of Dave and Betty Carlson.
            April 25, Terry Hollister called to be full time Director of Youth Ministries.
            May, The Mother/Daughter Luncheon was held.  Annie Hastey and Rich Shimomura presented a skit based on the Lord's Prayer.
            May 18, Mount St. Helens erupted.  To view a web site of Mt. St. Helens Click Here.  See a picture taken by Troy Adamson of the eruption while flying with his dad.
            May 27, Hershel Loy passed away.  Hershel was married to Beverly (Peterson) Loy.
            Summer, Fourteen High School and College students for SMT (Summer Missions Team) from Temple ministered three and one half weeks in Baja California, Mexico.
            August, The women had a mini-retreat at Lott's cabin.  Kathryn Dixon was the speaker.
            August 29, Mabel Dahlgren passed away.  Mable was married to Henry Dahlgren.
            September 11, Christmas in September meeting was held.
            October 5, This date marked the 200th anniversary of the Sunday school.
            October 8, Members of the choir traveled to Tacoma to attend an all day choral workshop sponsored by the CBC.
            Bob Lott, wife Debbie, and son Jeremy were welcomed into the congregation. Bob was hired as assistant pastor. Bob was ordained by Rev. Bud Malmsten.
            This year sixty-nine people joined the church, 29 by baptism and 40 by letter.
            December, Dave Parker and family were appointed by the board of World Missions as missionaries. The Parkers served in Yemen, Nice, France and then in the Ivory Coast.
            December, The Temple Choir and the Sonshine choir presented a concert at the Lloyd Center.
            Terry Hollister was our Youth Pastor.
            Don Van Polen presented a multimedia presentation called, "Autumn Across America."
            Temple was invited to the sixtieth anniversary of Warren Baptist Church.
            Temple held a twenty-four hour "Day of Prayer" again this year and experienced seven Lenten services with Darrall Imhoff, Neil Lomax, Kirby Brumfield, Bill Johnson, Gordon Shadburne, Mike Donahue and Gary Randal. 
            One of the highlights of the whole year was the double ordination service for Terry Hollister and David Parker.
            The renovation of the "Youth House" (Chi Alpha House) has become a fine resource for our young people and a facility which has proved to be a great blessing.
            The nursing program at Bethel College begins.

            Dr. Fred Prinzing  continued as senior pastor.
            January 7, Dave Parker and Terry Hollister were ordained.
            January, We hosted our annual church music workshop led by Mr. Dale Wood.  There were approximately 120 church music directors in attendance.
            April 15, Ministry Expansion fund raising started.  Consisted of adding Sonbeam Day Care Center, new Sunday School space, and support for missionary, Dave Parker and family.
            May, The Temple Sonshine presented a musical production, "The Enchanted Journey."
            July 29, Today was the Royal wedding of Prince Charles and Princess Diana.
            August, Temple hosted twenty-two young people from Japan for several days.
            November, Temple hosted a missions conference, the theme was "Go And Tell This People" featured Dr. Clarence Bass from Bethel College, the George Chalmers' from the Philippines,  the Richard Young's from Argentina and Dave Parker from Temple in Portland.
            December 11, 6:30 PM (Friday)  The church had a farewell dinner for the Parkers.  
            December 13, 11:00 AM (Sunday) Commissioning Service for the Parkers.  Rev. Herb Skoglund, Executive Secretary of the Board of World Missions, and other invited guests took part in the service.
            December 13, 6:00 PM (Sunday) Children's Christmas Program.  The entire evening was devoted to a portrayal of the "The Christmas Story" in word and music by the children of the church.
            December 20, 11:00 AM (Sunday) Rev. Joseph A Ryan, Regional Director of World Vision, International, was the speaker.  Rev. Ryan, at that time was serving in Central and South America visiting the many mission fields.
            December 20, 6:00 PM (Sunday)  Annual Choir Concert.  Our Adult Choir sang traditional Christmas Carols and excerpts from The Messiah.
            December 24, 9:00 PM (Thursday) Christmas Eve Service.  This hour-long service has been a highlight for many each Christmas.  The freshness of the Christmas Story became apparent as we re-lived the Gospel Narrative of the Birth of Christ.
            December 27, 11:00 AM (Sunday) The Chalmers Family was in charge of our evening service.  The family provided special music and George and Nancy's son Dan, will speak.  Dan and Carla have been appointed as missionaries of the Baptist General Conference the week before.
            December 31, 10:15, (Thursday) New Year's Eve Service.  The evening service began with a time of fellowship in the Lower Auditorium and the service concluded with a Communion Service and prayer.
            Six young men have completed seminary training and move out into areas of Christian service.  Jim Wright, Tom Grove, Mark Johnson, Jim Heritage, Terry Hollister, and David Parker.
            Don Van Polen presented his latest wide-screen multimedia production entitled "All Nature Sings", an autumn trip across Canada.
            The U. S. Supreme Court installed its first woman judge, Sandra Day O' Conner.

            Dr. Fred Prinzing  continued as senior pastor
March, The Lower Columbia Conference Spring Rally for the Women's Missionary Society was held at Temple.
            May, The children's musical, "Come Messiah, Come", was presented during this month.
            June, Arlene Peterson represented Temple at the Association of Church Mission Committee in Minnesota.
            June 17-24, The Summer Missions Team took advantage of this time to minister in the Portland area.  The first week was spent training and the second week was spent teaching the neighborhood children about God.  The team ministered through Bible clubs in two church homes.
           July, Many women of Temple met at Evelyn Lott's cabin on the Lewis River for a mini-retreat with an inspiring talk given by Dixie Sylvester.
           July 4, The all-church picnic was held at Columbia Park.  The Singles Class was in charge.  Eating, singing, and playing games were enjoyed by all.
           September 3-6, The third annual "Labor Day" weekend was held at Fort Stevens, on the Pacific Coast just south of Warrenton, Oregon.  All the campsites were filled and everyone enjoyed a fun weekend.  Eleven AM worship services were held at Temple and also at Fort Stevens.
           October, The women of Women's Mission Circle met for our "Christmas in October."  Linda Coffman spoke on "Women Helping Women" which the ladies said was encouraging.
           November, the Annual Missions Conference held at Temple was the highlight of the year.  Joe Ryan served as chairman for the conference, which the theme was, "Every heart without Christ is a mission field, and every heart with Christ is a missionary."
November 7, Peter Larson, conference missionary in Mexico spoke to a combined Sunday school during Missions Week.        
           From the 1981-82 Annual Report--Our Lenten Services experience a greater attendance this year than last.  On the seven previous Wednesday before Easter at noon, we were inspired by the following:  Musical groups from Grant High School, a Pro Football Player, a president of two different Bible seminaries, an attorney, a biblical dramatist and television personality, and a television reporter/news anchorman.
            Bob Lott was Assistant Pastor.
            Terry Hollister was Youth Pastor.
            Ray Green started as Temple's Business Manager.
            A new sign was installed in front of the church building.
            New choir robes were purchased.  The choir has 40 to 45 people participating each week during the year which included 20 to 22 men.
            Evening service attendance almost requires opening the balcony.
            The Deacon Board was expanded to five more deacons.
            The church fiscal year was changed to coincide with the calendar year.
           All the church choirs took part in a Christmas Concert at the Lloyd Center.
            George K. Brushaber becomes president of Bethel College and Seminary after serving as dean on the college since 1975;  Dwight W. Jessup is named dean of the college.
  "If you want to walk on water, you have to get out of the boat!"  John Ortberg

             Dr. Fred Prinzing  continued as senior pastor.
            February 3,  President Ronald Reagan designated 1983 as Year of the Bible by Proclamation 5018 at the annual National Prayer Breakfast. 
          February 10, Pastor Prinzing and Anita left for a 5 week tour of Japan and Philippines to visit missionaries including Ken Tbayashi in Tokyo, Japan - Yutaka Yoshiki in Osaka, Japan -  Jill and Dave Beeler in Bagiuo City, Philippines - George and Nancy Chalmers in Calbayog, Western Samar, Philippines - Roy and Jean Nelson in Cebu City, Philippines.  Thirty Conference pastors and some wives were there to hold meetings and to be an encouragement to missionaries in the field.
            May, The Women's Missionary Society held their annual Mother and Daughter Luncheon. 
Fall, ground breaking for three story addition on West side or back of the Church.  Click here to see photos of ground breaking ceremony.  Construction started as we watched during the year.  The church anticipated great things and an added outreach to the community as we looked forward to opening a daycare center for nearly one hundred children.  We will have a kitchen and dining area on one floor and planned to have class rooms on another.
            August, The Women's Missionary Society had their Mini-Retreat at Lott's Cabin.  Approximately fifty women were present for a delicious luncheon in beautiful weather.
            August 28, Steve Feriante ordained into the Gospel Ministry.
            September, The Women's Missionary Society held their Women's House Party at Lake Retreat
            September 11, Rich Murphy ordained into the Gospel Ministry.
            October, The Women's Missionary Society held their "Christmas in October."  Diane Penner spoke of her experiences as a short-term missionary to Japan.
            November, The Women's Missionary Society of Temple and the women of the Lower Columbia Conference met at Glisan Street Baptist Church.
            Barbara McClintock at age 88 became the first woman ever to win the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine
            The church sold bonds in the amount of $300,000 to complete phases I & II of the ministry expansion program for the expansion to the church on the west side.
            Mitch Klein and Rich Murphy were chosen for the Post Seminary program
            Church adopted a 3 year ministry expansion program to begin June 1,1984. 
            The church had a “World Outreach Conference” with the Roy Nelson’s from the Philippines and the Donald Goldsmiths' from Brazil.
            Because of over crowding the church went to two worship services on Sunday mornings.
            Dave and Marjorie Parker are missionaries in the Ivory Coast.
            The Dave Danielson’s are conducting a ministry in evangelism in many areas of the United States.
            The new ministry expansion building at the NW corner of the lot includes Day Care, elevator, new church nursery, new future kitchen and dining room on second level.  William Keefer was the Architect.
            Don Van Polen presented his multi-media presentation, "The Four Seasons."
            Fourteen of our young people traveled to Kansas City "83" for a time of spiritual inspiration and Christian growth.
            The "SMT" Summer Missions Team traveled to Alaska during which they held daily vacation Bible schools and youth retreats in various churches.  There were twenty-three including leaders and sponsors in this group.
            The Centennial Quilt was presented at the Fall Kick Off Banquet.  See 1984
            Because of the crowding in single worship services, the church staff and the Worship Committee have cooperated in starting two morning services, thus we cut down on crowding and also allow more opportunity for involvement such as ushering and serving communion.  We also changed the type of bread we use during communion to cut down on preparation time.

            "God measures our success with the yardsticks of obedience, faithfulness, and righteousness.  If you are faithfully doing the work God gives you, you are successful in His eyes."

             Dr. Fred Prinzing  continued as senior pastor.            
             New Years Day, Sunday morning service, recognition was given to the following longest-term members:  Edith Gordh, Helen Hallgren, Gerta Salstrom, and Flavia Westerlund.  Pastor Dave Danielson ministered to us and a Swedish Choir reminded us of our heritage.
            January 8, the resolution pertaining to double Sunday morning services was adopted and to begin on this date.
            January 15,--June Peretti was honored for 25 years as church organist.
            March, the church began accepting applications for daycare positions.
            March 25, Sunday evening, the Temple Sonshine and Chi-Alpha Singers presented the production, "What's New Corky?"
            Early Spring, the name "Sonbeam Daycare" was chosen for the child development center.
            April, --Rich Murphy left Temple to go into Chaplains training in Rhode Island.  Later his family joined him in Arizona where he began his duties as a Navy Chaplain.
            April 15,--At Temple:  The church holds an Open House for the new ministry building at the conclusion of the 11:00 am service.  The second and third stories were uncompleted at this time.
            April 15,--New house of worship for Southwest Hills Baptist Church opened on Palm Sunday.
            April 18, --Senator Mark O. Hatfield spoke at the Lenten service.
            April, -- (later in the month) The ME 11 program started under the direction of Mr. Bill Hammerbeck.  The program started on June 1.
            June 9,--Mr. Mitch Klein and Miss Debbie Meis were married in a beautiful ceremony at the church.
           A Centennial Quilt was presented to the church to commemorate the first 100 years.  The quilt was designed and manufactured by the ladies of the church under the leadership of Edith Ryberg, and presented to the church to commemorate the first 100 years.  Fran Maynard composed song and lyrics corresponding to the quilt squares with depicted stages in Temple's development and ministries.     
                          Read an article from the Oregonian Newspaper about the Centennial.
           June 24, Temple celebrated its 100th anniversary commemorating service under God with a dinner at the Jantzen Beach Red Lion Motor Inn on Hayden Island, north of Portland on the Columbia River..

           The 100 year emblem sticker

            June, Temple and Lower Columbia Conference hosted the 106th annual meetings of the Baptist General Conference.  Executive Board meetings at Temple on June 18 and June 20.  The Conference it self was in session at Jantzen Beach Red Lion from June 20 to June 29.
            June, SMT '84 This year was set aside for the team of high school and college students to be in charge of the children's ministry (150 children in elementary grades) during the Baptist General Conference Annual Meetings at the Jantzen Beach Red Lion complex. 
            July 1,--Mr. Fred Johnson began serving as Director of Child Development.
            July 24, official dedication of Southwest Hills Baptist Church.
            August, --Mr. Norm Ryberg passed away and went home to be with the Lord while sitting in church at Sunday morning service.
            August 23, Gerda Salstrom, wife of Dr. F.G. Salstrom passed away.
            August 26, the nursery was in its new location on the ground floor of the new addition on the West side of the church.
            September 1-3, The annual campout at Fort Stevens State park was held over the Labor Day weekend with over 200 campers attending.
            September 4, the Sonbeam Daycare
Center opened its doors with a limited number of students.  (The name Sonbeam Day Care was chosen as the name for the child development center in early spring of this year.)
            September 7, Dick Wiens, former pastor of Temple, was the guest speaker at our Fall Kickoff Banquet.
            September 20, The Sonbeam Day Care Center officially opened and provided service for five children.  
            October 22, The annual church roller skating party was held at the Oaks Park Roller Rink in the evening.
            November 21,  Thanksgiving Eve, The Love Loaf ingathering was collected at the Great Family Gathering. 
            December 24, Ellen Wright, wife of Stan Wright passed away.

            Bob Lott (Minister of Evangelism and Discipleship) and Debbie turned in their resignation to move to Tacoma, Washington.
            Dave Parker and family accepted a call to Sylvan Way Baptist Church in Bremerton, Washington.
            Ruth's Kitchen was completed as was the new dining room, which was to be called "The Upper Room".  John Pumphery was Architect.
            A note from the 1984 Annual Report:  (Bob Lott was assistant pastor and wrote a page from his desk in the report.)  "Since writing this report, Debbie and I have turned in our resignation at Temple to move up to Tacoma.  We will miss the people here at Temple very much and have dearly love these past five and one half years."
            The retired persons joined together under Don Slater for fellowship and mutual help.  Trips were planned to places of interest and monthly potlucks held for social enrichment.
            Ken Kornelis, son of Tom and Shirley Kornelis, began providing counseling services for the church.

            Every one lives on one of two tents:
                                                        Either in Con-tent or in Dis-con-tent.
                                                                                            "I have learned, in whatever state I am in, to be content."

                                                                                                                                                        Philippines 4:11

             Dr. Fred Prinzing  continued as senior pastor. 
          February, Assistant Pastor, Bob Lott asked his father Ray to ask Ray Green and Don Slater to go to Modesto, California and visit with the churches in the area and check out their programs for Retired People.  See October 11.
             February 13, Temple accepted the challenge of sponsoring new Conference work in Bend, Oregon. Rev. James Wright accepted the challenge to head up this new work.  In the spring they left their church in Nevada to start the new work in Bend.
             March 31,--Mitch Klein  was ordained at the church.
             April--Bob Lott resigned to join Central Baptist in Tacoma as Minister of Youth and Single Adults.
             April --Dr. Jack Bergeson retired as Executive Secretary of Columbia Baptist Conference after serving 15 years.
             April 11, Agnes Johnson passed away.
             June,  Temple hosted the “Tone of Life Choir” from the Baptist Union of Sweden. Members of this group came from the Stockholm area and joined together to sing in association with the choir of (Swedish) Bethel Seminary.
              June 22, Anna Heppner passed away.
             August,--Rev. Terry Hollister and Debbie resigned from the church staff to become church planters in Billings, Montana.  Their work was much appreciated and they are missed by the church body.
             August 4, Hazel Brenneke passed away on this date.  She was the wife of Mr. Dale Brenneke.
             September1, Labor Day weekend:  The all-church Labor Day Fort Stevens Camp-Out had over 200 participants.

             September 24, Ruth Johnson, wife of Dr. Linus Johnson, former pastor of Temple went to be with her Lord.
             September 29, 7:00 PM ~  Luis Palau spoke at the Memorial Coliseum. "Greater Portland For Christ."  
           October 11, --The Keenager group at Temple was organized.  See a letter written by Ray Lott.
             November 24,--The Temple Historical booklet, “Temple Baptist Church – The First Century”, written and compiled by John Pearson, was made available to the church.
             December,-- Rev. Mitch Klein accepted the call to be the pastor of Cedarhome Baptist Church, Stanwood, Washington.
December 1,  The Chi Alpha House was vacated on .  The young people moved into the church basement.
             December 8, Don Van Polen presented his multi-media program entitled, "Footprints of the Reformation."  Don photographed the actual sites where these historic events took place and presented these dramatic scenes with narrative on three giant screens in the church sanctuary.
             December 14, Hanna Johnson passed away.
             December 29, A Great Family Gathering Homecoming tribute was held in honor of Mitch and Debbie Klein as they concluded their ministry with the church to begin serving as Pastor of Cedarhome Baptist Church in Stanwood, Washington.
             December 30, William Nestlen passed away.
             John Anderson and Mark Manfredi stepped in to take the space of ministry for the youth.
             Don Strandberg had to vacate his position as church moderator because of length of term ran out.
             Pastor and Anita Prinzing took a sabbatical from the pulpit. They attended the BGC annual meetings in Wheaton, Illinois, then flew to Rome for an 18 day seminar at the Waldensian Seminary. After they toured the great cities of Europe for 2 ½ weeks.
              As originally designed, the nursery was too small to accommodate the children enrolled.  After many hours of discussion and planning, the nursery was finally remodeled in the Fall. 

            "Train up a child in the way he/she should go, and then be sure to go that way your self." 

             Dr. Fred Prinzing  continued as senior pastor.
January 28, The Space Shuttle Challenger disaster occurred on this Tuesday, when the space shuttle broke apart 73 seconds into its flight.
             February 16, Mr. Clifford Beeler died.
             February 28, Elsie Ostrom died.
             February,  Pastor and Anita lead a tour to Israel, several Temple members went along.
             March 15, The women of the Lower Columbia Conference had their Spring Banquet at New Heights Baptist Church in Vancouver, Washington, with Anita Prinzing as speaker.
             Spring,  Awana program begins.
             April,  Dr. Fred Prinzing announced his resignation effective July 31.  Lloyd Rekstad became involved in the pastoral functions of the ministry.
             April 1,  John Anderson became Temple’s Minister of Christian Education.
             May, Music leaders and sponsors took the Sonrise Edition to Puyallup for a short weekend tour, which included an evening at Lake Retreat.
             June, Tom Kornelis and Paul Strandberg accepted the position of co-chairmen of the Building Committee.
             June 18,  Summer Missions Team traveled to Camp Big Horn in St. Regis, Montana with Mark and Deena Manfredi.
             June 29,  Fortieth Anniversary of Lake Retreat Baptist Camp.
             July 27,  Farewell Sunday for Sunday for Pastor and Anita Prinzing.
             July, Pastor Prinzing left Temple to take a position as Professor of Theology at Bethel.
             July 22, Dr. Robert Anderson accepted the call to be Temple’s interim pastor. His duties began the first Sunday in September.
             July, Music Camp was held.  The highlight was the musical production, "Its Cool to be in the Furnace."  The theme of the performance was teach the young people the value of trusting God through every circumstance.
            October 1, Dick and Bev Young missionaries from Argentina shared about their ministries.
            November 8, Edith Gordh died.
            December, Temple, and the Columbia Baptist Conference & Baptist General Conference helped format the Philippine Baptist Church in Portland.
            Patricia Bath was the first African-American to complete a residency in Ophthalmology and the first African-American female doctor to receive a medical patent.  She invented the Laserphaco Probe for cataract treatment. 

            "God sends trials with a purpose:  He knows the more a diamond is cut, the more it sparkles."

            Dr. Robert Anderson with the help of his wife Rosella, served as Interim Pastor.          
            February 3, A Swedish smorgasbord was held at Temple.  Menu included  Lutfisk, Kroumkaka, Kottbullar, and Spritsar.   See a website with many delicious Swedish recipes.
            May 10, John Anderson ordained.
            June 15, Mike Pinkerton became Director of High School Ministries.
            August 14, Tim Tebow was born in the Philippine Islands.  Tim is an American football quarterback for the Denver Broncos of the National Football League.  He was drafted by the Broncos as the 25th overall pick in the 2010 NFL Draft.  He played college football at Florida.  
            August, Lloyd Rekstad left for a new ministry in Yacaipa, California after 10 years and Director of Music.
            October 25, the American Filipino Baptist Church was organized.
            November 30, Dr. Robert Anderson resigned as Interim Pastor to teach at Western Theological Seminary.
            Fran Maynard (Malmsten) took over as Director of Music from Lloyd Rekstad.
            Computerization of church records was begun.
            Morrie Brask retired after 25 years as Head Usher.
            ME-3 (Ministry Expansion Third Phase) Fund raising Program started.
            Work crews began construction on the second floor of the three story project on the west side of the church building.   Finishing was done to the kitchen, trim around the windows were set, a dropped ceiling was installed, flooring was laid, and a dividing wall was installed among other things accomplished.

             "If you are waiting for God to provide, consider this:  He may be waiting for you to take the first step to demonstrate just how important your need is."

            Rev. Harold Carlson served as Interim Pastor
            May, a Junior Olympics was held at Lake Retreat.
            June 19, A loving farewell was given for Fred Johnson, Patti and sons David and Brian who joined the staff of Hinson Memorial Baptist Church as Christian Education Director.
            July 17, Rev. Harold Carlson and wife Jamie, our interim pastor for six and one half months were honored on this day.
            Pastor Steve Roy, with wife Susan and children, Andrew, Beth, Lydia candidates at Temple from Wednesday, April 20 to Sunday, April 24th.  The following week the church voted to extend the call for Senior Pastor.
           July 24, Pastor Roy began his ministry at Temple.
           October 23, John Anderson and wife Kim were honored at a commissioning service.  They will enter a church planting ministry with the BGC at Crystal Lake, Illinois.
            November 18, Popcorn with the Pastor,  Those who planned to attend were asked to write or speak verbally questions of the Pastor on the Bible, theology, ministry programs, future plans of the church.
            Tony Nimis was the staff youth leader.
            Efforts were made to complete the second floor of the new building.
            The church enlisted the help of Olan Mills to provide a new color pictorial directory.
            John Pearson was the church historian. 
            Deschutes Bible Church in Bend, Oregon, was welcomed into Columbia Baptist Conference at the annual meeting in Olympia, Washington.
           Billy Graham--Held meetings and preached in China, where his wife Ruth lived as a child.
            H. David Brandt is named first Bethel college provost.

            "When you leave God out of your life, you may be shocked at what you are capable of doing."  

Steve Roy continued to serve as senior pastor with Mike Pinkerton as Associate Pastor for Nurturing and Terry Tharpe as Associate Pastor of Outreach.
February 20, a recommendation was made to extend a call to Mike Pinkerton to be the Associate Pastor for Nurturing Ministries.
            March 5, The church congregation voted to extend a call to Mike Pinkerton to be the Associate Pastor for Nurturing Ministries effective June 1, 1989.
            March 23, The first event in use of the “Upper Room”; Maundy Thursday communion service.
            May, The book The Fourth Quarter, by Dr. Jack Bergeson, is scheduled to be released from the publisher.
            May 7, Sunday, 6:00 PM the second floor Dining Room was dedicated.
            June 1, Mike Pinkerton began as Associate Pastor for Nurture Ministries.
            June 4, Mike Pinkerton was licensed to preach as per certificate signed by Pastor Steve Roy.  See May 11, 1990
            August--Filipino-American church conducted Daily Vacation Bible School at Temple.
            October 1, Terry Tharpe called to become Associate Pastor of Outreach Ministries.
            November 9, Destruction started on the Berlin Wall.
            December 1, Flavia Westerlund died.
            The new kitchen that serves the second floor dining room was named “Ruth's Kitchen” in honor of Mrs. Ken ( Ruth) McCarthy.
            Deschutes Bible Church disbanded following failure to find a pastoral leadership.
            AWANA program reviewed and ratified as church ministry for boys and girls.
            Bethel's Program in Adult College Education (PACE) degree completion program begins.

            "Whenever we get away from God and His Word, all sorts of evil can follow.  Our drifting away from God may be slow and almost imperceptible, with the ultimate results affecting a future generation.  We must continually call our nation back to God and work toward the establishment of God's moral and spiritual reign in the heart of every person."                              From footnotes of Judges 19:30 NIV

Steve Roy continued to serve as senior pastor.
March 18, 1:24 am,  Thieves broke into the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston, Mass. and made off with almost 1/2 billion Dollars worth of art.  This was done in 81 minutes.  This was the largest art heist in history.  To this day no one has been arrested for the crime.
         April 24, The Hubble Space Telescope was put into orbit.
            May 11, was the official date on the License from Multnomah County for Pastor Mike Pinkerton to preach.
            June, Transfer of property that has been in the works for a long time with Pacific Development Inc. resulted in the ownership of the churches entire block and in assuring us of a long term parking right in our central downtown location.
            July, The church commissioned Jim and Tori Wright and their children Ben, Laura, and Kristen as BGC missionaries to France.
            October, we had a special communion service based on the "Wedding Feast of Christ," with concert pianist Alyotia Ryebenov, and dramatist, Kirby Brumfield.
            Missions Conference for 1990 had speakers Dick and Bev Young and Ron Carlson.
            Dave and Brenda Christensen were preparing for the mission field in Belgium.
            This was Mike Pinkerton's first full year as Associate Pastor.
            Steve Roy was senior pastor, his third full year.  Pastor Roy said, "We need to be like Paul," who said in Philippians3:13-14, "One thing I do; forgetting what is behind and straining toward what is ahead, I press on toward the goal to win the prize for which God has called me heavenward in Christ Jesus".

            "God is at work in this world and He wants to use you."

Steve Roy continued to serve as senior pastor.
          Tony Nimis was High School Director
             June 12, Boris Yeltsin was elected President of the Russian Federation.
             December 7, Floie Davis died and went to be with the Lord.
             Temple was blessed with the ownership of the parking lot on the Southwest corner of the block. It was obtained through the trade of other property and a lease back arrangement for the use of parking during the weekday. This allowed the church to obtain the property with no out of pocket costs.
             The small kitchen in the lower level, east of the fireside room was remodeled.  John Pumphery was the architect.

            "What a picture of how we come to faith in Christ.  We begin with no hope and are rebellious aliens with no part in the kingdom of God.  Then we risk everything by putting our faith in Christ.  God saves us, forgives us, rebuilds our lives, and gives us blessings that will last through eternity."

Steve Roy continued to serve as senior pastor.
May 14-17,  The 103rd Annual Meeting of the Columbia Baptist Conference was held at Temple.  See the February-April front Cover of the Conference Call.
            September,  Billy Graham held a five day crusade in Portland and drew 290,000 people.
            October 11, Pastor Mike was ordained for the ministry at Temple.  
            December, Mr. and Mrs. Ray Green (Hazel) celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary.  A large reception was held in the Upper Room.
            Mr. Ray Green served as the Church Administrator.
            Billy Graham--Preached in North Korea.
            Bethel College offers its first graduate degree programs and opens the Center for Continuing Studies to administer PACE, graduate programs, and continuing education programs.

            "To be loyal and loving in relationships, we must imitate God's faithfulness in our relationship with others."  

            Steve Roy continued to serve as senior pastor.
            August, Terry Tharpe and family moved to serve a church in Poulsbo, Washington.
            Tony Nimis was High School Director in until June.
            Fran Maynard (Malmsted) was Director of Music.
            Summer Mission Team was in training for the running of a Daily Vacation Bible School in Lebanon, Oregon, and then spent two weeks running their own VBS in Mehama and Woodburn, Oregon.
            Dean Longfellow was Director of High School Ministries.
            Ron and Leta Kriens were home on furlough from Southeast Asia earlier than expected when the host government terminated its relationship with the Kriens' sending organization.

            "Christ showed His kindness by dying for us to guarantee our eternal life.  God's kindness should motivate us to love and honor Him."

         Pastor Roy left Temple.
            July 31, Ron Kriens and family return to Southeast Asia under local sponsorship.
            Twelve new members were added to the Temples roll, two by baptism, ten by letter.
            The Hope Vietnamese Baptist Church was started.
            Billy Graham, held meetings and preached in China, where his wife Ruth was raised.  Also preached in North Korea.
            Leland V. Eliason becomes Bethel Seminary dean.

            "No mater how devastating our present situation may be, our hope is in God.  His resources are infinite.  We must believe that He can work in the life of any person-whether that person is a king or a stranger in a foreign land.  Trust His protection." 

            June 1, Paul Flood joined the staff at Temple.
            July 1, Pastor Mike began his first year as Interim Senior Pastor.
            July 23, A new comet, Hale Bopp was first seen.  The comet was discovered in 1995 by two independent observers, Alan Hale and Thomas Bopp, both in the United States.  Hale has spent many hundreds of hours searching for comets without success, and was tracking known comets from his driveway in New Mexico when he chanced upon Hale--Bopp just after midnight.
            September 4, Mandy Strandberg passed away.
            Gary Shank served as Interim Associate Pastor.
            Jon Christian (church moderator) left for Wisconsin.
            Don Green was voted to the job of Church Moderator.
            Temple welcomed twenty-three new members this year.
            Computer system in offices completed.
            Mortgage on the building paid off for addition on West Side of Church.
            See photo of Board of Elders - Deaconess
            Billy Graham--Meetings in San Juan, Puerto Rico, were translated into 102 languages and sent by satellite TV to 175 countries.
             At Bethel, the Carl H. Lundquist Community Life Center is dedicated; Jay Barnes is named college provost; Bethel opens a home page on the World Wide Web.

            "We tend to think of blessings in terms of prosperity rather than the high-quality relationships God made possible for us.  No matter what our economic situation, we can love and respect the people God has brought into our lives.  In doing, we give and receive blessings.  'Love is the greatest blessing.'"

            Mike Pinkerton continued as Interim Senior Pastor.
            May, Billy and Ruth Graham received the Congressional Medal at the Capitol in Washington, DC.
           June 9, Pastor Mike Pinkerton was called as Temple's Twenty Third Senior Pastor.  He accepted the position that day.
           November, Gary Shank leaves for a pastorate at Immanuel Baptist Church in Monmouth, Illinois.
           Church building was painted and sound system and heating upgraded.
           Bethel College and Seminary celebrates its 125th  year.  1871 to 1996  "Proclaiming God's faithfulness to all Generations."

            "Sharing openly about our relationships with God can bring depth and intimacy to our relationships with others."

            Mike Pinkerton continued as Senior Pastor.
            January 1, Paul Flood became part of the church staff in a full-time position as Minister of Music.
           Art Greenleaf was Associate Pastor.  He devoted 25% of his time as Chaplin to Portland Fire Bureau.
           April 3, Ruby Brugh, Hildur Strandberg and Dagmar Walthinson were honored by the Deaconess at Viola Christenson's home for their age.  Ruby was 91, Hildur was 90,Dagmar was 90.

            "When you act selflessly, others are encouraged to follow your example."

            Mike Pinkerton continued as Senior Pastor.  
            June 3, The USS Missouri's final mainland duty ended with a departure ceremony in Astoria Tuesday morning.  At 4:30 pm today, the great battleship will cast off from Pier 1 and head for Pearl Harbor.
            August 31, Princess Diana the divorced wife of Prince Charles of England was fatally injured an automobile accident in Paris, France.
            October 20, The first module of the International Space Station was launched.  The Zarya Control Module was launched atop a Russian Proton rocket.  Zarya provides battery power and fuel storage.
            October, new sound system put into place.
            December 19, President of the United States, Bill Clinton, was impeached by the House of Representatives.
            Pastor Mike visited Ghana, West Africa and The Hawaiian Islands.
            The Vietnamese Baptist Church helped with renewal work and special services.
            November, Dave Christenson family left for Belgium to work with the Muslim people.
            Replaced carpeting in the entire church.  Pews were removed from the sanctuary and replaced after the carpet was installed.  (A very coordinated effort).
            Jon Christian became Junior High Director.
            Sonbeam Day Care was in it's 15th year of operation.
            "When you face bitter times, God will welcome your honest prayers, but be careful not to overlook the love, strength, and resources that He provides in your present relationships.  Don't allow bitterness and disappointment to blind your opportunities."  
                                                       Footnotes from Ruth 1:20,21  

            Mike Pinkerton continued as Senior Pastor.
April, Dr. and Mrs. Evans (Marilyn) Nelson celebrated 50 years of marriage.
            May, June Perretti celebrated 40 years as church organist.
            August, The Portland Streetcar Loop construction started.  This line will run south down NE 7th avenue in front of Temple to OMSI and return north up Grand avenue and go across the Broadway Bridge.
            Luke and Terri Crook were seminary students working with the High School group.
            This year was the 116th year the Annual Reports were written.
            Temple sent support to the following missionaries:
                Ron and Leta Kriens
                Frank and Barbara Emrick
                Peter and Coreen Larson
                Brian and Stephanie Karlik
                Mark and Helen Downing
                Dick and Bev Young
                Ray and Teresa Durkin
                Gil and Norma Clark
                Dave and Brenda Christenson
                Mike and Eva Fast
                Mathew Naw
                Richard and June Harris
                Rick and Carol Stark

            "God's strength goes beyond numbers or physical strength!"

            Mike Pinkerton continued as Senior Pastor.
January, leaders in Charlotte, North Carolina, invited their favorite son, Billy Graham to a luncheon.
            Luke and Terri Crook leave for Boston, Massachusetts--Jon and Lisa Bryant took over as High School Sponsors.
            August, Jon and Lisa Bryant left.
            The seats in the choir loft were replaced with more manageable chairs.
            November, the Annual Meeting was held in the Upper Room.  A model of the B-24 Liberator was presented to Ray Green by Don Strandberg who also made the model.

            "Whether you are experiencing a great victory or major dilemma, singing praises to God can have a positive effect on your attitude."
                                                                       From Judges 5 (footnotes) NIV

            Mike Pinkerton continued as Senior Pastor.
            March 17, Earl & Pearl Johnson celebrated 50 years of marriage. 
            September 11,  The Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City were destroyed by terrorists who hijacked four commercial airline airplanes and flew two of  them into the buildings.
            A third plane also crashed in to the Pentagon in Washington DC and the forth crashed in an unpopulated area of Pennsylvania.  Approximately 5,000 people lost their lives on that dreadful morning.
            November 25, Tim Corrigan and Linette joined as watch care members.  They are the High School Directors.
            December 30, Tim Corrigan and Linette were married.

            "If we attempt to meet life's challenges with human effort alone, we will find the pressures and temptations around us too great to resist." 
From Judges 1:1 (footnotes) NIV

            Mike Pinkerton continued as Senior Pastor.
February 10, A Great Family Gathering was held at 6:00 PM in the Upper Room at Temple in honor of Betty Carlson who is retiring from head of the Kitchen Committee.  Betty is 80 years old this year.
            March 3, The guest speaker for the Sunday morning worship was Rev. Hal Lentz.  He said that the BGC reports that Temple has given $540,000.00 to missions to date.  The message was titled "What Do We Hold Dear?"  Text from 2 Corinthians 8:2-6.
            March 28, The Bethel Choir preformed an evening concert at Temple.
            June 22, Dr. and Mrs. Celious Williams (Mettie) celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary
            June 28, Dr Jerry Sheveland was named President of the Baptist General Conference at the annual meeting in Ypsilanti, Michigan. 
            August 3, The Baptist General Conference celebrates 150 years.  
            August 4, Temple Baptist Church celebrated 75 years since the existing building was built.  Click here to see details and photos of the event.  
            August 10, Mr. and Mrs. Winn Goddard (Marianne) celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary.
            August 25, annual campout on the coast at Fort Stevens.
            August, Tim and Linette Corrigan resigned as High School Directors.
            September 8, the church celebrated the 80th birthday of Dr. Evans Nelson who's birthday was September 5.
            September 20, Chalmert Larson went to be with the Lord.
            September 30, a memorial service was held at Temple for Chalmert Larson.
            October 16, The Library at Alexandria, Egypt was officially inaugurated.  It was built for $220 million USD.  It is located close to where the original library was located.  
            November 15, Sam Loeung and his wife Jen were hired as Director of Youth.          
            December, Tim and Linette Corrigan left Temple to drive to their new station.

            "God is for us-that is good;  God is with us-that is better;  God is in us-that is best!"    "The Bible does not need to be rewritten, but re-read!"
From the November 3, 1963 - Temple Bulletin

            Mike Pinkerton continued as Senior Pastor.
            March 17,  A memorial service was held for Vern Bergstrom, who died March 9, 2003.
            March 22, The church hosted a 20's, 30's, 40's party in the upper room.  Click Here to see pictures of the event.
            June 14, Pastor Pinkerton's daughter Andrea Renee was married to Mr. Joel Daniel McMartin in a beautiful ceremony which took place in the church sanctuary.  
            June 18, A memorial service was held for David Carlson who died June 15, 2003.
            July 27, Glisan Street Baptist Church celebrated 50 years of ministry.
            August 9, work day at Temple by the church family and friends to clean the church, upper room kitchen, and landscaping of the grounds. 
            August 16, a city wide work day on landscaping and grounds at different public schools.  Temple joined with the Four Square Church at Benson High School.
            August 17, Gil and Norma Clark celebrated 60 years of marriage in a celebration Sunday afternoon at Temple.

            "Men may paint the outward appearance of Christ's suffering but the cannot paint the inward agony or the invisible cause of it." 
                                                                                 from the Log of the Good Ship Grace.

            Mike Pinkerton continued as Senior Pastor.
            January 11, Don Van Polen presented his multi-media program at Temple in the sanctuary at 6:00pm.
           January 18, the ladies of the Temple Quilters presented a quilt to Jon and Susan Christian.
           February 5, Ray Green, the church administrator, and devoted member for many years passed away early this morning.
           February 9, 1:00 pm, a memorial service was held for Ray Green  in the sanctuary.
           February 19, The Keenagers went to Oregon Museum of Science and Industry (OMSI), visited different exhibits and viewed a movie in the OMNIMAX Theater.
           February 20-22, Women's Retreat at Camp Tillicum.
           February 28, the church hosted a Missionary Conference and kicked off with a desert buffet with Ron and Leta Kriens. 
           February 29, Ron and Leta Kriens spoke during a combined adult Sunday School time and Dave Christensen spoke to the children's combined Sunday School and he also gave the message during the morning service.
           March 6, We enjoyed a brunch in the upper room with Mark and Helen Downing.
           March 7, Missionary Conference continued with Ron and Leta Kriens speaking during children's combined Sunday School and Mark Downing spoke to the combined adult Sunday School and gave the  message during the morning service. 
           March 7, a lunch reception was held in the upper room for Josh Adams who returned from Iraq on a tour of duty with the US Navy.
           March 19, Mabel (Johnson) Hagey, a former member of Temple, passed away at the age of 95.  The service was held at Beaverton Foursquare Church.
           March 25, Laurie Breckel, a former Temple member, passed away.  A memorial service was held on April 1st at Southwest Bible Church in Beaverton.
           April 8, The Keenagers group attended the "Portland Passion Play" at Portland Christian Center.
           April 27, Dorothy O. Bishop went home to be with the Lord.  She was a long time member of Temple, sister to Dave Carlson and sister in law to Betty Carlson.  She was born on July 27, 1925.
           May 15, Long time member, Evelyn Smith went home to be with the Lord.  Evelyn served in many capacities at Temple and in the community.  She will be remembered for her card and letter writing outreach and her ministry of helping others.
           June 6, 6 p.m. Temple held its annual Sanctuary Choir Concert named "Favorites Concert."
           June 17, The Temple Keenagers visited the Chinese Gardens in N.W. Portland.  
           July 5, Margaret Steel went to be with the Lord.  She was 91 years of age.  One of her last requests was for some pickled herring in cream sauce.
            July 15, The Keenagers Group spent the day at Viola Christianson's cabin in Seaside.  There were 39 in attendance and the weather was beautiful.
           July 18, Temple had their 20th Annual Music Camp presentation.  Featured "Esther Ordinary Faith." 
           August 7-14, Youth and Leaders will be in Chicago for Summer Mission's Team Project.
           August 29, The weekend of, Temple held its 25th annual campout at Fort Stevens.
           August 29, Sunday - While most of the congregation was at Fort Stevens, Temple had a potluck picnic lunch in the Upper Room after the morning service.  Pastor Ron Hall gave the morning message.  He did a 30 minute walk through in the book of Ephesians.
           November 14, the church held its annual meeting in the Upper Room.  The 2005 Church Officers and the 2005 Budget were voted on.
           December 26, An earthquake in the Indian Ocean resulted in a Tsunami which claimed an estimated 230,000 lives in 14 countries.  Indonesia was the hardest hit, followed by Sri Lanka, India, and Thailand.  The Tsunami that followed was measured at 30 meters, or 100 feet high. 
           December 31, New Years Eve.  6:30 pm the church hosted a Simple Supper in the Upper Room.  A Communion Service followed supper with the breaking of loaves of bread.  After the congregation went to the main sanctuary to enjoy a year end slide show.  The Simple Supper consisted of 3 different kinds of soup and a green tossed salad.

            "When we decide to do what we know is wrong, we plant an evil seed that begins to grow out of control, eventually yielding a crop of sorrow and pain.  But we can prevent those seeds of sin from taking root.  If you have done something wrong, confess it to God and others immediately.  If the seed never finds fertile soil, it's bitter fruit will never ripen."      From foot notes of Deuteronomy 29, .

            Mike Pinkerton continued as Senior Pastor.
            January 11, Beverly Loy went to be with the Lord.          
            February 18-20, The Ladies of Temple spent the weekend at Camp Tillicum for a Ladies Retreat.
            March 6, The Church honored Dale Peretti during the morning service and after in the Upper Room with a light lunch for his service as a Sunday school teacher, librarian and doing the landscaping around the church grounds.  The congregation was invited to share with Dale.
            March 15, The dedication of the new Yad Vashem Holocaust History Museum in Jerusalem, took place.
            April 8-10, A Mother and Daughter Retreat at Lake Retreat.
            April 9, Today was the Civil wedding of Prince Charles and Camilla Parker Bowles.                   
            April 21, The Temple Keenagers had an outing at OMSI in Portland to see a documentary of a 4 month journey down the Blue Nile in Africa.
            April 29, John Fallon went to be with the Lord.
            May 4, A memorial was held at the church for John Fallon
            May 15, In the morning service, Pastor Mike Pinkerton included in his sermon a condensed version of  the story of  " Two Ladies Named Margaret."  who were sentenced to drown in the surf on May 11, 1865 in Scotland for their belief in Jesus.
            May 19, The Keenagers went to Mt. St. Helens.  A large bus was rented for the group to ride in.
            May 25, Wednesday, Lake Retreat hosted a Senior's Luncheon. Guest speaker was Dr. Jerry Scheveland, President of the Baptist General Conference.
            May 30, Oaks Park celebrated it's 100th anniversary of opening.  See 1905
            June 2, Gwen Bergstrom
went home to be with the Lord.
            June 7, Clyde Malone went home to be with the Lord at 5 PM.  A memorial service will be held at Temple on Wednesday, June 16th at 1:00 pm.
            June 8, A memorial service was held at Temple in the Upper Room for Gwen Bergstrom.
            June 12, Temple hosted the National Conference of the Baptist General Conference Vietnamese Ministry.  This is was an historic gathering of Vietnamese Churches in one place to celebrate God's goodness.
            June 16, Dwain DeMaris leaves for a month long summer mission's trip to Brazil.  He will be working on construction projects for New Tribes Missions.
            June 24-26,  Billy Graham--Held his final American revival meeting in Queens, New York.  242,000 Gather in Queens New York for Billy Graham's final crusade.
This year, Dr. Graham reached the age of 86.
            June 26, Sunday evening at 6:00 Temple held the "Summer Hummer" in the Sanctuary.
            July 11-16, 21st annual Music Camp held at Temple Baptist Church.
            July 17, 6:30 pm, A Presentation called "Acorns to Oaks," was held in the sanctuary featuring the members of  Music Camp.  Attendance was 230.  A reception was held in the Upper Room after the presentation.
            July 21, The Keenager Group spent the day at Christiansen's Cabin in Seaside, Oregon.
            July 26, At 10:39 AM EDT the Space Shuttle Discovery was launched for a landing with the space station.
            July 31, A commissioning was held for the SMT members leaving for Rio in Brazil during the morning service.
            August 2, SMT members left for Brazil.  They left Portland International Airport on United Airlines.
            August 9, At 8:11 AM EDT the Space Shuttle Discovery landed at Edwards Air Force Base in California.
            August 14, Jon Christian held a telephone conversation with the SMT members, in Brazil, during the morning service.
            August 20, The Junior High Group went to Mt. Hood and rode on the Alpine slide.         
            September 14, Wednesday Evening Activities Resume.
                         5:30 PM Betty's Diner.
                         5:30 PM Temple Sonshine Choir.
                         6:45 PM Temple Bible Clubs, Jr. High & High School Youth, Choir, Prayer & Bible Study.
            September 18, There was a combined Junior High - Adult Sunday School with Dick & Bev Young.
            September 20, 9:20 am, Tuesday, Women's Morning Bible Study started up again.
                                   7:00 pm, Women's Evening Bible Study started up again.
            September 22, Thursday, The Keenagers took a trip to Hood River Orchards.
            September 25, Sunday, The Small Group Bible study started up again.
            September 30, Friday, The High School Youth Group had an all night event at Temple.
            October 7, The High School Groups of the CBC had a fall rally at Monroe, Washington.
            October 14-16, A Men's Camp was held at Lake Retreat.
            October 20, The Keenagers had a Swedish Smorgasbord and Scandinavian Program in the Upper Room.
            October 23, Hazel Green, wife of the late Ray Green went to be with the Lord.
            October 23, Missionaries Rick and Carol Stark, from Uruguay, were at Temple.
            October 24, Gil Clark went to be with the Lord.
            October 27, There was a Memorial Service for Hazel Green at 2:00pm in the Upper Room at Temple.
            October 27, The Sonbeam Daycare had a Harvest Carnival.
            October 27-29, The Columbia Baptist Conference had their annual meeting at Belleview, Washington.
            October 28, There was a Memorial Service for Mr. Gil Clark at 11:00am at The Little Chapel of the Chimes in SE Portland.
            October 28, The Junior High had a Harvest Party at the home of Kyle and Cathy Horness.
            October 30, Daylight Savings Time Ended.
            November 1, Mr. Joe Ryan passed away at 3:30 this morning.
            November 1, Deloris Danielson went home to be with the Lord at 3:00 p.m. today.
            November 5, A Harvest Banquet was held at Lake Retreat.
            November 11, The Keenager Group visited New Heights Church in Vancouver, Washington.
            November 12, A memorial service was held at Temple for Deloris Danielson at 11:00 am.  "A wife of noble character is her husband's crown.  She brings him good, not harm, all the days of her life."                                                                                Proverbs 12:4 & Proverbs 31:12
            November 13, Temple Baptist Church Annual Meeting and dinner was held in the Upper Room.
            November 15, 2:00 pm, A memorial service was held at Temple to remember the life of Mr. Joe Ryan.
            November 19, The Junior High School Group had a bowling party.
            November 23, A Thanksgiving Eve Service was held at Temple with Lower Columbia Conference Churches.  Ron Hall delivered the sermon.  A Thanksgiving Meal was provided by the Hope Vietnamese Baptist Church.  The menu consisted of rice, salad, egg rolls, pumpkin and apple pie. 
            November 24, Thanksgiving Day.  Read the Presidential Proclamation given by George W. Bush.
            November 27, The Dickens Carolers Concert at 4:00pm.
            November 27,  See the Angel Tree in the church foyer.
            December 2, The church hosted the Bethel University's Northwest Area Christmas Festival at 7:30pm.  A program of Christmas music, including selections from local Bethel alumni, followed by a time of fellowship and dessert.
            December 5, The Church Choir and Hillsboro Symphony Orchestra performed a Sing-A-Long "Handel's Messiah" in the church Sanctuary.
            December 11, The church held its Christmas Sunday School Program at 6:00pm.
            December 15, The Sonbeam Daycare Christmas Program was held this evening.  The Christmas message was given through the children to friends and family.
December 18, The Temple Choir gave their annual Christmas concert.  This year it was titled "Christmas Then and Now".  The concert was presented during the morning service followed by the annual Feast of The Spring Roll, compliments of the Hope Vietnamese Church.  The Evening program was canceled due to a winter ice storm.
            December, An air conditioning system was installed in the church boiler room for the sanctuary. 

            "There is something more than making a living -- That is making a life"

            Rev. Mike Pinkerton continues in his pastoral role at Temple.
January 19, Keenagers Kickoff Meeting in the Upper Room.  They had a brown bag lunch with banana splits and ice cream.
            February 16, The Keenagers had a film presentation "Our God of Creation," by Dr. Robert Bruechert, a friend of the Evans Nelson family.  Followed by Lunch with soup, bread sticks and cookies.
            March 16, The Keenagers monthly get-together had a PowerPoint presentation by Frank and Patty Peterson of pictures of their recent trip to the Holy Lands.  Lunch afterwards consisted of lasagna and salad.
            April 1, A CPR class was held at Temple in the lower auditorium.
April 9, Palm Sunday--Temple had a traditional Palm Sunday service with the waving of Palm Branches. 
April 14, 7:00pm - Good Friday service was held at Temple.
            April 15, Temple hosted an Easter Breakfast and Candy Hunt for children of ages two through sixth grade and parents.  There were 167 children and adults present.  After the candy hunt, the children were told the true meaning of Easter.  The weather was cold and raining so the candy hunt was held up on the second floor of the church.
            April 16, Easter Sunday--Temple had a traditional Easter Service with a lunch afterwards in the Upper Room.
April 17, Hildur Standberg went to be with the Lord this afternoon at 4:15.  She was 98 1/2 years old when she died. 
            April 20, The Keenagers met at Oregon Museum of Science and Industry (OMSI) to view the Omnimax Film, "Wired to Win", a film about the Tour-de-France.  Lunch afterwards was held at McGrath's Fish House in Milwaukie.
            April 23, Corbit Magby, District Executive Minister of the Columbia Baptist Conference, was the guest speaker at the morning service.  The message was, "Something Has to Die."
            April 30, Rev. Ron Hall, spoke at the morning service.  The message was, "Man's Response to the Gospel."
            May 13, A Memorial Service was held at Temple in the Upper Room for Hildur Strandberg
.           May 14, Mothers' Day.
            May 18, The Keenagers --Chinese Pastor to speak followed by Chinese food for lunch.
            May 21, Dr. James Spicklemier, Vice President of Bethel Seminary, was the guest speaker in the morning service.  He spoke on "How Did I Stumble into the House of God?"  from Genesis 28:10-22
            May 21, "The Spring Fling Sing Thing," was held in the sanctuary at Temple at 6:00 pm.  It was a wonderful time to see the many gifts that God has bestowed upon people of all ages from the congregation.
            May 24, Spring Senior's Luncheon at Lake Retreat.
            May 26, A Memorial Day ceremony was held at Oregon Baptist Retirement Home.
            May 26-29, Helping Hands Weekend at Lake Retreat.
            May 30, Oaks Park celebrated it's 100th anniversary of it's opening.
            June 3, Dale and June Peretti celebrated their 50th Wedding Anniversary in the Upper Room, 2:00 to 5:00pm.
            June 15, The Keenagers -- Oregon Gardens, in Silverton, Oregon.
            June 18, Father's Day.
            June 25, The Golden Hill Youth Choir, "Power & Light", presented a beautiful message in song during the morning service.
        July 7, A memorial service was held at 2:00 pm at Temple in the main sanctuary for Peggy Beattie.  A reception followed in the Upper Room.
            July 16, Mark and Helen Downing spoke at 10:00 am during the Sunday School hour.  Mark also delivered the message during the 11:00 worship Service.
            July 16, 6:00pm - The 22nd Annual Music Camp presented their presentation, "Joseph, This is your Life".  A reception was held after in the Upper Room.
           July 15, 60th Anniversary Celebration of Lake Retreat was held at the camp in Ravensdale, Washington.
           July 16-Mark and Helen Downing spoke at 10:00 am during the Sunday School hour.  Mark also delivered the message during the 11:00 worship Service.
            July 16, 6:00pm - The 22nd Annual Music Camp presented their presentation, "Joseph, This is your Life".  A reception was held after in the Upper Room.
          July 16, A 1950s Hawker Hunter, vintage British jet fighter plane, crashed this evening at the Oregon Air show at the Hillsboro Airport.  The plane struck and completely destroyed one home, by the grace of God,  no one was home at the time.  Two other homes sustained major damage and the people inside were able to get out in time with no injuries.  The pilot did not survive.  The plane had been on display at the air show and was flying home to California when it crashed a few moments after taking off. 
           July 18, The Keenagers -- Beach outing at Viola Christians cabin at Seaside, Oregon.  Lunch was purchased at the famous and delicious Seaside KFC. (Kentucky Fried Chicken) 
           July 23, A picnic was held at Blue Lake Park, East of Portland, in honor of Pastor Mike Pinkerton.  The church commemorated the anniversary of his 10th year as Senior Pastor at Temple.  The picnic was held after the morning service.  Hot Dogs and Hamburgers were served from 1:15 to 2:15 pm.  Snow Cones served all afternoon.
           July 23, The Helvetia Community Church celebrated 125 years today.     Read as printed in the Hillsboro Argus.
           June 29, Peggy Beattie went to be with the Lord this morning at 6:00.  The entire family was with her at Emanuel Hospital when she died.
           August 5, The SMT from Temple left for Pascagoula, Mississippi to work with storm victims.  The Theme this year is KATRINA SMT-2006.
           August 6, Frank and Barbara Emrick spoke at 10:00 am during the Sunday School hour and will bring a greeting during the Worship Service.
          August 13, The message at the morning service was presented by Rev. Thai Nguyen, Pastor of the Hope Vietnamese Church.  It was entitled "A New Beginning." 
           August 17, The Keenagers -- Outing at the Wennermark's farm on Sauvies Island.  It was a desert fellowship with local peach shortcake.
           August 20, Tim and Linnette Corrigan spoke and showed slides of their life in China, at 10:00 am during the Sunday School hour and will bring a greeting during the Worship Service.
           September 1, Junior High Parent/Game Night - 7:00pm
           September 6, Christian Education Leaders Meeting - 7:00pm
           September 8-10, Women's Retreat at Lake Retreat
           September 10, Fall Kick Off Dinner and Ministry Fair - 5:30pm
           September 13, Wednesday Evening Activities Resume
                                    5:30 PM Betty's Diner
                                    5:30 PM Temple Sonshine Choir
                                    6:30 PM Midweek Prayer and Bible Study
                                    6:45 PM Temple Bible Clubs, Junior High and High School Youth Groups, Choir
           September 11-15, Senior Adult Retreat at Lake Retreat.
           September 21, The Keenagers -- Outing at Mary Hill Museum, eat Lunch at Biggs Junction.
           September 22-24, Men's Camp was held at Lake Retreat.  Rev. Larry Adams was this years speaker.
           September 24, A Wedding Reception was held today for Karen Aull and Duane Kitzmiller in the Upper room after the morning service. It was held from 1:00 to 3:00 pm.   Karen accompanies June Peretti on the pipe organ with a flute during the Sunday morning services. 
           September 27, See You at the Pole - 6:30-8:30 PM
           September 30, Elder Retreat at the Church - 9:00 AM
           October 6, Junior High Game/Parent Night - 7:00 PM
           October 6-8, High School Fall Tally
           October 13-14, Women of Faith conference was held at the Rose Garden Arena.
           October 18, Sydney G. Larson died and went to be with the Lord.  A memorial service was held at the First Baptist Church in Coon Rapids, Minnesota.  Pastor Larson was the father of Marilyn Reynolds of Temple.
           October 26-28, 117th Columbia Baptist Conference Annual Meeting is held in Tacoma, Washington.
           October 27, Junior High Harvest All-Nighter-5:30 PM
        October 29, Daylight Savings time end.
           October,  The Keenagers -- Have an informal coffee clutch at McDonald's Restaurant near Temple every week during the month
           November 3, Junior High Game Night
           November 11, Veteran's Day
           November 12, Annual Meeting/Dinner - 5:30 PM
           November 17, Movie Night,  Dinner at 6:30PM -- Movie at 7:00 PM -- The movie, "End of the Spear," is based on the true story of a boy and his family growing up with the Ecuadorian tribe that murdered his father and several other missionaries. Directed by Jim Hanon and based on the book by Steve Saint.
           November 22, Thanksgiving Festival - 7:00 PM
           November 23, Thanksgiving Day
           November 25, All Church Decorating for Christmas
           November 26, Dickens Carolers Concert - 4:00 PM
           November,  The Keenagers -- Have an informal coffee clutch at McDonald's Restaurant near Temple every week during the month
           December 1, Bethel Christmas Event - 7:30
           December 3, Sunday Advent 1 Lighting of the Peace Candle by the Fessenden Family.
           December 3, 6.00 PM A-Sing-a-long Messiah.
           December 8, Junior High Christmas Party - 5:00 PM